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This is the question as written in the paper--(escribe a work-related conflict experience. Include the responses to the following:
•Explain the types of data a mediator may wish to gather and analyze in conducting a session to reduce or eliminate conflict.
•Assess how this information is utilized in a mediation plan by providing a detailed example of each.

Length: 5-7 pages, not including assignment cover sheet and references
References: A minimum of 5 scholarly resources is required.

Your paper should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts that are presented in the course and provide new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your paper should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards. Review APA Form and Style)

Describe a work-related conflict experience. Include the responses to the following:
•	Explain the types of data a mediator may wish to gather and analyze in conducting a session to reduce or eliminate conflict.
•	Assess how this information is utilized in a mediation plan by providing a detailed example of each.
Length: 5-7 pages, not including assignment cover sheet and references
References: A minimum of 5 scholarly resources is required.

Your paper should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts that are presented in the course and provide new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your paper should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards. Review APA Form and Style.

Introduction 
Conflict is any situation in which incompatible goals, attitudes, emotions, or behaviors lead to disagreement or opposition between two or more parties. In the organizations, the conflict is inevitable.  Estimates suggest that managers spend about 21 percent of their time dealing with conflict. Conflict management skills are a major predictor of managerial success and are related to emotional intelligence (EQ) (Alper, S., Tjosvold, D., & Law, K. S. (2000)). Conflict can arise between co-workers, supervisors and subordinates or employees and external stakeholders, such as customers, suppliers and regulatory agencies. Managing conflict is a key management competency, and all small business owners should study and practice effective conflict management skills to maintain a positive workplace environment (Swan, J., & Scarbrough, H. (2005)).
Conflict causes categorized into structural factors and personal factors.
•	Structural Factors
Structural factors include specialization, interdependence, common resources, goal differences, authority relationships, status inconsistencies, and jurisdictional ambiguities.  Jurisdictional ambiguity refers to unclear lines of responsibility in an organization. Such ambiguities may increase with team and group work, when conflict arises from confusion over group responsibilities (Moye, N., & Langfred, C. W. (2004)).
•	Personal Factors
Personal factors include skills and abilities, personalities, perceptions, values and ethics, emotions, communication barriers and cultural differences. Communication barriers can be physical or value-related.  
The examples of conflict are on the basis of types of conflicts. Below are the set of examples against the different kind of issues:
1.	Discriminative Issues: Discrimination is due to heated conflict, potentially ending in legal trouble for a company or its owners. Discriminatory conflicts can arise from personal prejudices on the part of employees or perceptions of mistreatment of employees. Example of a discrimination-related conflict, imagine a minority employee in a team setting which feels that he  consistently assigned the most menial work tasks in the group. This employee may begin to harbor resentment against team members and managers, eventually lashing out through decreased productivity or outright verbal conflict. To resolve this issue, a manager could sit down with the whole team and discuss the way in which job tasks are assigned, making changes as necessary to ensure that tasks  divided equitably (Alper, S., Tjosvold, D., & Law, K. S. (2000)).
2.	Personal Review Conflicts: It is related to the performance issue of one employee on another employee. Employees may become angry over not receiving expected pay raises promotions or other performance-related incentives, and may lash out by spreading discontent through gossip and a negative attitude at work (Chen, G., Liu, C., & Tjosvold, D. (2005)). Employees may argue directly with supervisors during performance reviews, creating sensitive situations that require tactful communication. To resolve the conflict was arising from a negative performance review, work directly with the 
employees to create a solid, time-bound plan of action to improve performance, and tie the completion of these goals to guaranteed incentives. Allow employees a voice when setting goals to increase their dedication to achieving the goals.
3.	Conflict with customers: Sales and customer service employees can experience conflict with customers on a fairly regular basis, depending on the industry. A common conflict experienced by salespeople is a dissatisfied customer who feels personally defrauded by an individual salesperson (Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986)). For example, if a car salesman sells a used car without a performance guarantee or warranty and the car breaks down on the buyer, the buyer may return to angrily confront the salesperson and demand a refund. The best first step to solve these conflicts is to involve a manager who has the right to offer refunds, discounts or other conciliatory gestures to the customer unless you are in a situation where employees are empowered to make these kinds of decisions.
Mediation Process
Conflicts can be avoided, talked out, negotiated, arbitrated, adjudicated, resolved by legislation, by political action, or by violent force (Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986)). Mediation defined as "an intervention in a standard negotiation or conflict of an acceptable third party who has limited or no authoritative decision-making power but who assists the involved parties in voluntarily reaching a mutually acceptable settlement of issues in dispute."  The mediator starts to collect data and information from different resources relating to that conflict and utilize these data for the resolution. 
Types of data to be collected and analyzed by mediator:
Any conflict analysis and management begins with data collection directed by the mediator. In any process there are various types of data to be collected and analyzed, below are the types of data and steps  followed in any mediation process (Vangen, S., & Huxham, C. (2003)).  
•	Data collection methods available include direct observations, consultations with secondary sources such as maps, financial records, background check and interviews with the involved parties. 
•	Interviews, joint sessions with the parties and brainstorming session to have a win-win situation for all parties. 
•	The identification of all relevant parties is done and plan for the order and timing of the interviews, and  plan for building rapport with the parties done. 
•	Interviews can be focused or unfocused, structured or non- structured, individual or joint. 
•	At the last the mediator decides what sort of questions to ask in the interviews, and exercise good listening skills during the interviews.
Once the data is collected same needs to be analyzed and interpreted. The main task of the mediator is to integrate and understand the elements of the dispute: people, dynamics, issues and interests. The methods used in the integration of data are:
•	Timelines  
•	Case studies
Mediators develop an interpretation of the conflict be separating unrealistic causes of the conflict from realistic causes. Unrealistic causes include stereotypes, miscommunication, and confusion over the facts, and inappropriate competitive behavior. Realistic causes include competing interests, differing values, structural constraints, and disagreement over the collection or importance of data. Once the above information is gathered and identified then it becomes a part of the mediation plan.
Mediation plan is a sequence of procedural steps initiated by the intervener that will assist negotiators in exploring and reaching an agreement (Amabile, T., Conti, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J., & Herron, M. (1996)). A plan made in accordance with the parties involved in the process as identified during interview sessions. The plan consists of the parties to be involved in the negotiation, the place of negotiation and the physical arrangement for the negotiation process. Example includes the interests and issues important to the parties, the psychological conditions of the parties and the deadlocks issues among the same and the ways to handle the same. 
Throughout the negotiation process, mediators work to build trust and foster cooperation. The mediator identifies the parties' perceptions, assesses their accuracy assesses whether they help or hinder negotiations, and then helps the parties revise their inaccurate or negative perceptions. Mediators encourage the parties to be clear and consistent, to follow through promptly on their promises, to expose small vulnerabilities to the other side, to accept penalties for breaches of faith and to refrain from making threats. The mediator must determine where the problem is occurring, and then act to change the content, timing, setting,
Manner, or agent of communication as appropriate. Mediators must also be attentive to nonverbal forms of communication and miscommunication (Vangen, S., & Huxham, C. (2003)).
There are a number of factors which influence choice of mediation strategies. They include the stage of the conflict and the parties' abilities to resolve their dispute, the balance of power between the parties, which negotiation procedures are being used, how complex the issues are, and what the parties expect from the mediator. In crafting a mediation strategy, the mediator must decide on the level, target and focus of intervention. The mediator decides whether to concentrate on the level of general problem-solving or a specific issue (Vangen, S., & Huxham, C. (2003)).
Conclusion
Handling conflicts and mediation process is very important in any organization and any team. If the conflict is handled in the right manner then, it leads to innovation among the team members, and it leads to growth of the team as a whole. Mediation process enables the teams to resolve the issues and move to constructive measures of teamwork






                                                                          References 
Wilmot, W., & Hocker, J. (2011) Interpersonal conflict.	

Abigail, R. A., & Cahn, D. D. (2011) Managing conflict through communication.	

Articles
	
de Wit, F. R. C., Greer, L. L., & Jehn, K. A. (2012, March). The paradox of intragroup 

conflict: A meta-analysis. 

http://proxy1.ncu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=pdh&AN=apl-97-2-360&site=ehost-live


Alper, S., Tjosvold, D., & Law, K. S. (2000). Conflict management, efficacy, and performance in      organizational teams. Personnel Psychology, 53, 625–642.
Amabile, T., Conti, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J., & Herron, M. (1996). Assessing the work environment for creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 1154–1184.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.
Chen, G., Liu, C., & Tjosvold, D. (2005). Conflict Management for Effective Top Management Teams and Innovation in China. Journal of Management Studies, 42(2), 277–300.
Moye, N., & Langfred, C. W. (2004). Information sharing and group conflict: Going beyond decision making to understand the effects of information sharing on group performance. The International Journal of Conflict Management, 15, 381–410.
Swan, J., & Scarbrough, H. (2005). The politics of networked innovation. Human Relations, 58, 913–943.


Turnitin Originality Report 
Paper1 by Musa Alamour 
From Paper 1 (OL 7001-8) 
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•	ID: 441388088 
•	Word Count: 1587 
 
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paper text:
AmourMOL7001-8-5 DR Fox, Jeanne Conflict Resolution and Mediation Assignment 5 Assignment 5: Describe a work-related conflict Experience OL7001-8 Conflict Resolution and Mediation Al Amour, Musa DR Fox, Jeanne NORTHVENTRAL UNIVERSITY Date July 26, 2014 13Introduction Conflict is any situation in which incompatible goals, attitudes, emotions, or behaviors lead to disagreement or opposition between two or more parties. In the organizations, the conflict is inevitable. 5Estimates suggest that managers spend about 21 percent of their time dealing with conflict. Conflict management skills are a major predictor of managerial success and are related to emotional intelligence (EQ)2(Alper, S., Tjosvold, D., & Law, K. S. (2000)). Conflict9can arise between co-workers, supervisors and subordinates or employees and external stakeholders, such as customers, suppliers and regulatory agencies. Managing conflict is a key management competency, and all small business owners should study and practice effective conflict management skills to maintain a positive workplace environment (Swan, J., & Scarbrough, H. (2005)). 5Conflict causes categorized into structural factors and personal factors. ? Structural Factors Structural factors include specialization, interdependence, common resources, goal differences, authority relationships, status inconsistencies, and jurisdictional ambiguities. Jurisdictional ambiguity refers to unclear lines of responsibility in an organization. Such ambiguities may increase with team and group work, when conflict arises from confusion over group responsibilities (Moye, N., & Langfred, C. W. (2004)). ? 5Personal Factors Personal factors include skills and abilities, personalities, perceptions, values and ethics, emotions, communication barriers and cultural differences. Communication barriers can be physical or value-related. The examples of conflict are on the basis of types of conflicts. Below are the set of examples against the different kind of issues: 1. Discriminative Issues: Discrimination is due to 4heated conflict, potentially ending in legal trouble for a company or its owners. Discriminatory conflicts can arise from personal prejudices on the part of employees or perceptions of mistreatment of employees. Example of a discrimination-related conflict, imagine a minority employee in a team setting which feels that he consistently assigned the most menial work tasks in the group. This employee may begin to harbor resentment against team members and managers, eventually lashing out through decreased productivity or outright verbal conflict. To resolve this issue, a manager could sit down with the whole team and discuss the way in which job tasks are assigned, making changes as necessary to ensure that tasks divided equitably2(Alper, S., Tjosvold, D., & Law, K. S. (2000)). 2. Personal Review Conflicts: It is related to the performance issue of one employee on another employee. 3Employees may become angry over not receiving expected pay raises promotions or other performance-related incentives, and may lash out by spreading discontent through gossip and a negative attitude at work (Chen, G., Liu, C., & Tjosvold, D. (2005)). 3Employees may argue directly with supervisors during performance reviews, creating sensitive situations that require tactful communication. To resolve the conflict was arising from a negative performance review, work directly with the employees to create a solid, time-bound plan of action to improve performance, and tie the completion of these goals to guaranteed incentives. Allow employees a voice when setting goals to increase their dedication to achieving the goals. 3. Conflict with customers: Sales and customer service employees can experience conflict with customers on a fairly regular basis, depending on the industry. A common conflict experienced by salespeople is a dissatisfied customer who feels personally defrauded by an individual salesperson (Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986)). 6For example, if a car salesman sells a used car without a performance guarantee or warranty and the car breaks down on the buyer, the buyer may return to angrily confront the salesperson and demand a refund. The best first step to solve these conflicts is to involve a manager who has the right to offer refunds, discounts or other conciliatory gestures to the customer unless you are in a situation where employees are empowered to make these kinds of decisions. Mediation Process Conflicts can 1be avoided, talked out, negotiated, arbitrated, adjudicated, resolved by legislation, by political action, or by violent force (Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986)). Mediation 10defined as"an intervention in a standard negotiation or conflict of an acceptable third party who has limited or no authoritative decision-making power but who assists the involved parties in voluntarily reaching a mutually acceptable settlement of issues in dispute." The mediator starts to collect data and information from different resources relating to that conflict and utilize these data for the resolution. Types of data to be collected and analyzed by mediator: Any conflict analysis and management 1begins with data collection directed by the mediator. In any process there are various types of data to be collected and analyzed, below are the types of data and steps followed in any mediation process (Vangen, S., & Huxham, C. (2003)). ? 1Data collection methods available include direct observations, consultations with secondary sources such as maps, financial records, background check and interviews with the involved parties. ? Interviews, joint sessions with the parties and brainstorming session to have a win-win situation for all parties. ? The identification of all relevant parties is done and 1plan for the order and timing of the interviews, and plan for building rapport with the parties done. ? Interviews can 1be focused or unfocused, structured or non- structured, individual or joint. ? At the last the mediator decides what sort of questions to ask in the interviews, and exercise good listening skills during the interviews. Once the data is collected same needs to be analyzed and interpreted. 15The main task of the mediator is to integrate and understand the elements of the dispute: people, dynamics, issues and interests. The methods used in the integration of data are: ? Timelines ? Case studies Mediators 8develop an interpretation of the conflict be separating unrealistic causes of the conflict from realistic causes. Unrealistic causes include stereotypes, miscommunication, and confusion over the facts, and inappropriate competitive behavior. Realistic causes include competing interests, differing values, structural constraints, and disagreement over the collection or importance of data. Once the above information is gathered and identified then it becomes a part of the 12mediation plan. Mediation plan is a sequence of procedural steps initiated by the intervener that will assist negotiators in exploring and reaching an agreement2(Amabile, T., Conti, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J., & Herron, M. (1996)). A plan made in accordance with the parties involved in the process as identified during interview sessions. The plan consists of the parties to be involved in the negotiation, the place of negotiation and the physical arrangement for the negotiation process. Example includes the 1interests and issues important to the parties, the psychological conditions of the parties and the deadlocks issues among the same and the ways to handle the same. 1Throughout the negotiation process, mediators work to build trust and foster cooperation.1The mediator identifies the parties' perceptions, assesses their accuracy assesses whether they help or hinder negotiations, and then helps the parties revise their inaccurate or negative perceptions.1Mediators encourage the parties to be clear and consistent, to follow through promptly on their promises, to expose small vulnerabilities to the other side, to accept penalties for breaches of faith and to refrain from making threats.11The mediator must determine where the problem is occurring, and then act to change the content, timing, setting, Manner, or agent of communication as appropriate. Mediators must also be attentive to nonverbal forms of communication and miscommunication (Vangen, S., & Huxham, C. (2003)). 1There are a number of factors which influence choice of mediation strategies. They include the stage of the conflict and the parties' abilities to resolve their dispute, the balance of power between the parties, which negotiation procedures are being used, how complex the issues are, and what the parties expect from the mediator. In crafting a mediation strategy, the mediator must decide on the level, target and focus of intervention. The mediator decides whether to concentrate on the level of general problem-solving or a specific issue (Vangen, S., & Huxham, C. (2003)). Conclusion Handling conflicts and mediation process is very important in any organization and any team. If the conflict is handled in the right manner then, it leads to innovation among the team members, and it leads to growth of the team as a whole. Mediation process enables the teams to resolve the issues and move to constructive measures of teamwork References Wilmot, W., & Hocker, J. (2011) Interpersonal conflict. 7Abigail, R. A., & Cahn, D. D. (2011) Managing conflict through communication. Articles 7de Wit, F. R. C., Greer, L. L., & Jehn, K. A. (2012, March). The paradox of intragroup conflict: A meta-analysis.7http://proxy1.ncu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db= pdh&AN=apl-97-2-360&site=ehost-live2Alper, S., Tjosvold, D., & Law, K. S. (2000). Conflict management, efficacy, and performance in organizational teams. Personnel Psychology, 53, 625–642. Amabile, T., Conti, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J., & Herron, M. (1996). Assessing the work environment for creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 1154–1184.14Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations.2Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182. Chen, G., Liu, C., & Tjosvold, D. (2005). Conflict Management for Effective Top Management Teams and Innovation in China. Journal of Management Studies, 42(2), 277–300.2Moye, N., & Langfred, C. W. (2004). Information sharing and group conflict: Going beyond decision making to understand the effects of information sharing on group performance. The International Journal of Conflict Management, 15, 381–410. Swan, J.,&2Scarbrough, H. (2005). The politics of networked innovation. Human Relations, 58, 913–943. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
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