SOLUTION: Bethel University Hypothetical Auto Theft Problem in The City of Problem Report Essay

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Fundamentals of
Crime
Mapping
C
H
A
P
M
A
N
,
Rebecca Paynich, PhD
Director, Master of Arts
K in Criminal Justice
Associate Professor of Criminal Justice
A
Curry College
R
Milton, Massachusetts
Member, Academy of Criminal
Justice Sciences
I
Member, American Society
S of Criminology
S
A
Bryan Hill
Crime Analyst
Glendale Police1 Department
Glendale, Arizona
8
Member, International Association
of Crime Analysts
3
Member, Arizona Association of Crime Analysts
4
T
S
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Foundations
and Theoretical
Perspectives
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
1
2
3
4
SECTION
I
C
H
A
Introduction to Crime Mapping
P
Social Disorganization and Social Efficacy
M
Environmental Criminology
A Decision Making:
Geography and Individual
Victims and Offenders N
,
K
A
R
I
S
S
A
1
8
3
4
T
S
1
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C
H
A
P
M
A
N
,
K
A
R
I
S
S
A
1
8
3
4
T
S
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CHAPTER
Introduction to
Crime Mapping
1
By Paul Cooke
C
H
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
A
This book is written for individuals who are interested
P in the study and
practice of crime mapping. Whether you are a practitioner or a college student,
M
we hope you will find this book useful in your endeavor to learn more about crime
A with an in-depth analymapping. This book, however, is not meant to provide you
sis of theory or an extensive discussion of methods in crime
N mapping. Rather,
it is meant to convey the academic and practical skills the beginning student
, and accurate. For
and analyst need to create crime maps that will be useful
students who desire more than a cursory approach, there is a plethora of existing
literature, both practical and academic, that is more appropriate for advanced
K
studies. We have listed some of these sources in the Recommended
Reading section at the end of each chapter.
A
As a person interested in the field of crime mapping and analysis, you
should understand that it is not a simple field of study.R
The technology is
expanding rapidly, and you will need to work vigilantly to
I stay current in the field.
This chapter introduces the notion of crime as a “criminal event,” which
S and offenders interstresses the importance of understanding how both victims
act with their environments. This chapter also containsS
a brief history of crime
mapping and introduces the student to the basics of using mapping tools in the
A
analysis of crime. After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• Define and explain the criminal eventt and understand the basic theoretical
1 and place.
explanations offered for the relationship between crime
• Define and explain the concepts of crime mapping and
8 analysis.
• Identify key research that is rooted in crime mapping and analysis.
3
• Identify and explain basic map information, data, and various types of maps
4
used by crime analysts.
• List key software and resources used by crime mappers
T and analysts.
• List the resources available to crime mappers and analysts.
S
KEY TERMS
Administrative Crime
Analysis
Cartography
CPTED
Crime Analysis
Criminal Intelligence
Analysis
Criminal Investigative
Analysis
Criminology
Geocoding
Geographic Profiling
Hypotheses
Macro
Micro
Police Operational
Analysis
Projection
Scale
Strategic Crime Analysis
Tactical Crime Analysis
3
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4
CHAPTER 1
Introduction to Crime Mapping
Introduction
This chapter begins with a discussion of crime as a criminal event.
This view differs from other approaches to the study of crime in that it
not only seeks to understand the motivations and behaviors of offenders or victims, but it seeks to explain how both offenders and victims
interact with each other and their environment. Thus, we are studying
crime from multiple dimensions (the dimensions of the offenders,
victims, and environment)
C rather than simply trying to understand it
from one point of view (for example, trying to understand the motiH
vation of the offender without factoring in victim or environmental
characteristics). ViewingAcrime as a criminal event (Sacco & Kennedy,
2002) allows us to understand
crime in a spatial context in that the
P
environment provides varying opportunities for crime by providing
M victims that impact their decision making.
cues to both offenders and
A
Thus, properties of the immediate
space in and around criminal events
are contributing factorsN
to victimization and cannot be excluded from
the study of crime.
Also included in this, chapter is a brief discussion of the history of
crime mapping. Understanding the history of this field (or any field,
for that matter) is important
K to the discussion of present and future
issues in crime mapping. An introduction of basic map terminology
A of the different types of maps that crime
and a brief examination
analysts produce will also
Rbe included in this chapter. A discussion and
listing of resources, including
mapping and analysis software options,
I
is also provided.
S
Theoretical Explanations
of Crime and Place
S
A of life for as long as people have gathered
Crime has been a part
into social groups. A great deal of time and effort has been invested in
trying to understand crime, most notably examining why some people
1 and others do not. As a result, there is a
engage in criminal behavior
8 the larger heading criminology (the study
plethora of theories under
of crime and criminal behavior)
that attempt to answer these ques3
tions. However, thus far, we have no generally accepted theory that
4 crime in a society. For example, consensus
explains the existence of
perspectives of criminology
T approach crime as a normal and healthy
part of any society. Conflict
S perspectives, on the other hand, argue
that crime is the result of group conflict and unequal distributions
of power.
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Theoretical Explanations of Crime and Place
5
Criminological theories also differ in their level of application.
Macro-level theories make assumptions about societal-level variables,
including the structure of government and the economy and how these
variables impact crime rates within a society (which could be a city,
state, country, or even the world). Micro-level theories make assumptions about individual characteristics (IQ, mental state, temperament,
biological characteristics, and personal finances, for example) and how
they influence a person’s decision to commit a crime.
C solely on the indiUnfortunately, many theories of crime focus
vidual or group that commits a crime and ignore
H other contributors
to crime, including the environment. Recently, theorists have begun to
A
broaden their approach from simple explanations of the criminal and
P behaviors (Clarke
his act to include other variables, such as victims’
& Felson, 1993; Cohen & Felson, 1979) and theMphysical environment
(Brantingham & Brantingham, 1981, 1993). Thus, theorists began to
A
examine crime as an “event” that was not simply a product of an interN
action between persons but an interaction between
victims, offenders, and their environments. When researchers
began
to examine the
,
contributions of time and space on various criminal events, crime
mapping became an important tool in crime analysis. In addition,
K information systems
with the introduction of widespread geographic
(GIS) data collection efforts and improved technology,
the importance
A
of crime mapping has grown exponentially over recent years to the
R
development of theory and to the development of policy aimed at
I
understanding and preventing crime.
Shaw and McKay (1942) put forth their social
S disorganization theory, which suggests, in part, that the economic composition of a comS
munity contributes to crime by affecting neighborhood
order. Building
A observed that higher
upon the earlier works of Park and Burgess, they
juvenile delinquency rates tended to cluster in certain neighborhoods
within urban areas. Through their research, they determined that vari1 to higher levels of
ous factors about these neighborhoods contributed
crime. The neighborhoods suffered from the8effects of poverty and
residential instability, which impacted both the
3 physical appearance
and the social structure of the neighborhood itself. In these socially
4
disorganized neighborhoods, poverty, high population
density, and
high population mobility created an atmosphere
T where higher numbers of suitable targets and motivated offendersScoexisted with little or
no guardianship. Thus, the clustering of motivated offenders and a lack
of guardianship in certain areas of a city, often in socially disorganized
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6
CHAPTER 1
Introduction to Crime Mapping
neighborhoods, produces higher rates of crime. Shaw and McKay made
an important discovery that helped guide the development of more
recent theoretical approaches; they found that socially disorganized
neighborhoods suffered from higher rates of crime regardless of who
lived there. That is, whether the neighborhood was inhabited by Italians, Russians, Cape Verdeans, or Cubans, for example, the crime rate
remained high. Thus, this discovery suggests that the area, not the
people, is criminogenic.
C
Three primary theoretical
perspectives have built upon Shaw
and McKay’s discoveryH
and have made enormous contributions to
the study and understanding of crime in a spatial context: Routine
A
Activities Theory, Rational Choice Theory, and Crime Pattern Theory,
all of which are housedPwithin a larger theoretical framework called
Environmental Criminology.
M Each theory provides assumptions about
empirical observations of the environment, victims, and/or offenders,
A
allowing predictions to be made about the criminal event. In turn,
N possible solutions to combat crime, which
this provides insight into
incorporates environmental
, factors such as crime prevention through
environmental design (CPTED) and other situational crime prevention strategies (Crowe, 2000; Rosenbaum, Lurigio, & Davis, 1998).
K
For example, simply improving
lighting or limiting access to a parking lot may reduce thefts
from
automobiles
in that lot, or installing
A
emergency phones and well-lit walkways may reduce personal crimes
R
on a college campus.
I
Environmental Criminology
suggests that we analyze a variety of
characteristics about the
physical
landscape, such as land use, access,
S
and visibility, to determine likely areas that are conducive to crime.
Brantingham, Dyreson,Sand Brantingham (1976), in their “cone of
A there were regional differences in crime
resolution,” examined why
rates. In their subsequent work, Environmental Criminology, they suggested that to have a better understanding of crime, theorists must
1 to crime including the law, offenders, tarexamine four key elements
8
gets, and place (Brantingham
& Brantingham, 1981). In 1993, they
proposed the groundwork
for
crime
pattern theory, which combines
3
Environmental Criminology with rational choice and routine activi4
ties perspectives in understanding
crime (Brantingham & Brantingham, 1993).
T
Routine Activities Theory
S (Cohen & Felson, 1979) offers that three
elements, when coexisting in time and space, will produce a greater
likelihood that crime will occur: these include a motivated offender,
a suitable target, and the absence of a capable guardian. When all
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Theoretical Explanations of Crime and Place
7
three elements come together in time and space, the opportunity for
crime is greater than when one or two of these elements are missing.
Essentially, Routine Activities Theory suggests at the micro level that
individuals are more likely to be victimized in some situations than
others. For example, a person walking alone in a park at night listening
to an expensive iPod is more likely to be robbed than a couple in the
same park walking their large dog, not listening to expensive iPods.
At the macro level, this theory suggests that patterns in victimization have changed, in part, due to patterns in C
the routine activities of
society in general. For example, in the last 3 or
H 4 decades, the number of women who have decided to work outside of the home has
A
dramatically increased. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics
P aged 16 years and
(2007), 40.8% of civilian, noninstitutional women
older were employed in 1970. In 2006, this percentage
increased to
M
56.6%. This jump left an increased number of homes during the dayA
time hours unguarded, which may have contributed to an increase in
N theory explains that
daytime residential burglaries. In addition, this
crime rates will vary spatially due to increased
, opportunities caused
by higher numbers of suitable targets and motivated offenders and
lower levels of guardianship. Neighborhoods that are characterized
K
by physical and social disorder have more opportunities
for crime
because they tend to hold more motivated offenders
and
have
a greater
A
lack of guardianship.
R
Crime as a Criminal Event
I
The criminal event, under Routine Activities
S Theory, requires that
a suitable target, a motivated offender, and the absence of a capable
S time and place. That
defender or guardian come together at the same
A or domestic vioplace might be private, such as at a home (burglary
lence, for example), a more public place than the home, such as work
or school (workplace assaults or embezzlement), or in public spaces,
1
such as public roads, paths, parks, or entertainment
spots (robbery,
assault, and riots, for example). The specifics of8who is assaulted, what
is stolen, or who commits the crime may change3from place to place, but
whenever the three elements of the criminal event converge in time and
4 same token, if one or
space, the likelihood of crime is increased. By the
more of the elements is missing from the equation,
T a crime is less likely
to occur. Clarke and Eck (2005) expanded Routine
S Activities Theory
and developed the problem analysis triangle (or crime triangle) to
include the “controllers,” who are handlers, managers, and guardians
(see Figure 1–1).
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CHAPTER 1
Introduction to Crime Mapping
r
de
Of
fen
dle
Ha
n
ce
rs
Pla
Crime
e
ag
n
Ma
rs
8
C
H
Victim or Target
A
P Guardians
M
Figure 1–1 Problem Analysis Triangle
A
In this model, guardians
N are those persons who keep a watchful
eye on people and property, including people themselves and police or
, Handlers are people who know and interprivate security personnel.
act with motivated offenders. They include agents of informal social
control, such as family K
members, friends, or teachers, and agents of
formal social control, such as probation or parole officers. Last, managers are those persons A
who have some level of responsibility for the
behaviors of persons within
R a specific location. For example, home
owners are responsible for
I controlling behavior in their homes, teachers are responsible for maintaining order in their classrooms, and bar
Sfor controlling behavior in their bars. Home
managers are responsible
owners, teachers, and bar
S managers, in this sense, are managers.
In studying and mapping the criminal event, it is possible to study
A
not just the individuals involved but also to map crime and the spatial
and temporal variables needed to understand how the specific event
occurred, how the elements
1 came together, what actually transpired,
and how the event was concluded. When it is understood how a specific
8
event occurred, it becomes possible to examine similar events in an
3
attempt to identify similarities,
patterns, and ways to keep that type
of event from occurring4again.
It is also essential to realize that mapping criminal events is only
T
the first step in the crime fighting process. The criminal event and the
S the criminal event must be analyzed to find
circumstances surrounding
meaning in the data. Facts do not speak for themselves! They must be
critically analyzed. Hypotheses (statements derived from theory that
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Crime Analysis
9
can be tested to either support or disprove a theory or its assumptions) must be generated about individual criminal events and criminal
events that take place in combination with other, similar events. Could
the perpetrator be the same in a series of crimes? Is the method of
committing the crime similar? Are times and locations connected in
some way? Examining criminal events to identify relationships is the
role of a crime analyst, and data collection, analysis, and mapping are
the analyst’s method of fighting and preventing crime.
C
Crime Analysis
H
A that fall under law
There are three broad categories of analysis
enforcement analysis: crime analysis, criminal
P intelligence analysis,
and investigative analysis (Bruce, 2004; Gottlieb, Arenberg, & Singh,
Mcrime analysis in the
1994). There is a wide array of definitions for
existing literature. Crime analysis, as Boba defines
A it, “is the systematic
study of crime and disorder problems as wellN
as other police-related
issues—including sociodemographic, spatial, and temporal factors—to
, and disorder reducassist the police in criminal apprehension, crime
tion, crime prevention, and evaluation” (Boba, 2005, p. 6). Bruce
defines crime analysis as “focused on the studyKof criminal incidents;
the identification of patterns, trends, and problems; and the dissemiA develop tactics and
nation of information that helps a police agency
strategies to solve patterns, trends, and problems”
R (Bruce, 2004, p. 15).
The International Association of Crime Analysts (IACA) defines crime
I
analysis as “a type of law enforcement analysis that is focused on the
S and analysis of patstudy of criminal incidents; the identification
terns, trends, and problems; and the dissemination
S of information that
helps a police agency develop tactics and strategies to solve patterns,
A
trends, and problems” (2005). Essentially, crime analysis draws on a
variety of different types of data, including crime data, to gain a better understanding of criminal activity and the1root causes of criminal
activity, and to develop more effective means of combating crime and
8
preventing victimization.
3
Analysts look at crime and other law enforcement
data using formal analytical and statistical techniques and 4research methods that
have been developed in the social sciences. They study arrests, crime
T
reports, offender and victim characteristics, and crime scene evidence.
They also examine other types of data collected,Ssuch as calls for service,
traffic citations and accidents, census data, weather and traffic patterns,
and data from other criminal justice agencies, including probation and
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10
CHAPTER 1
Introduction to Crime Mapping
parole reports. By analyzing numerous sources of information, the
crime analyst can provide useful information to assist decision makers
in a police department to fight and prevent crime.
Crime analysis includes tactical and strategic analysis (focused
on criminal activity), and administrative analysis (focused on po …
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