SOLUTION: ENG 122 SDMC Week 5 The Impact of Inequality Between Men and Women Essay

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Full Title of Your Project: Rough Draft
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ENG122: English Composition II
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Full Title of Your Project: Rough Draft
Write your paper in a well-structured essay format and utilize the writing center’s
structure guidelines and APA guides to help you. Use your outline as a roadmap so you stay on
track. Remember to keep your eye on the big picture, too. Your overall argument, as described in
your thesis statement, must be clearly communicated in each paragraph. End the introduction
paragraph with your thesis statement.
Begin each body paragraph with a topic sentence. Remember, your introduction and
conclusion will discuss the full argument at a high level, but your body paragraphs will each
explore one piece of the argument. Support every claim with cited evidence from credible
sources, and discuss the information in the context of your argument. Make sure all your pieces
fit to create the complete argument. Reach out to the writing center tutors any time you would
like some one-on-one support. Give the draft your best effort, but do not pressure yourself to be
perfect. There will be plenty of time for revision and editing in Weeks 4 and 5.
Author, A. A. & Author B. B. (Year). Title of article with sentence case capitalization. Title of
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Author, A. A. (Year, Month). Title of online article with sentence case capitalization. Title of
Web Periodical with Title Case Capitalization, V#(I#). Retrieved from
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Title of Newspaper with Title Case Capitalization, pp. A1, B2-B3
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capitalization. Title of Newspaper with Title Case Capitalization. Retrieved from
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Author, F. F. (Year). Title of digital book with sentence case capitalization.
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▲ Since the student
revised the title of the
paper, the running header
was also updated with a
new shortened title

Running head
The Ethical Way to Adopt a Canine Companion
Yolanda B. Student
ENG122: English Composition II
Professor I. M. Jackson
August 31, 2016
◀ The student has
revised the title of
the paper so it is
more descriptive.
The running header, title, and overall formatting is correct.
This paper is written with good APA formatting.

The Ethical Way to Adopt a Canine Companion
Dogs are important members of many families, especially since
they live for many years and can be with children from childhood all
the way through until they become adults. People without children
also enjoy having dogs in their lives as surrogates for the parent–
child relationship. There are many ways to obtain a dog in America
and similar Western countries. Many people choose to obtain a puppy
from a pet store in a shopping center, mall, or another commercial
storefront. Others seek out puppies from seemingly licensed breeders; however, many puppies are also supplied by unlicensed or home
breeders. Because of the sheer number of dogs lost or abandoned,
shelters and rescue organizations take care of homeless or unwanted
pets until a forever family can be found. Family pets should be seen
as a lifetime guardianship commitment and not a frivolous financial
business transaction. The ramifications of treating living creatures as
consumer goods are great. Due to the pet overpopulation in America
and the exacerbated medical ramifications of selective breeding, it is
more ethical to adopt a rescued dog than to purchase a commercially
bred puppy.
Pet overpopulation in America may be the cause of numerous
environmental and sociological problems. Pet overpopulation can lead
to larger numbers of unsupervised and homeless animals across the
country. Pet waste left behind by dogs without human guardians is not
just unsightly and smelly; pet waste left in the open can have a major
impact on groundwater quality (Paterson, 2011). If pet waste is left
on the ground, it seeps into the groundwater, gets washed into storm
drains, makes its way into streams and lakes, and is left as untreated
sewage in the natural water cycle.
Rescue organizations reduce the pet population in America by
spaying and neutering all animals before they are released. There were
3,500 individual animal shelters operating at capacity in the United
States in the mid 1990s (Motavalli, 1995). The number of shelters and
The student has
revised the introduction paragraph
based on specific
marked-up paper
feedback provided
by the instructor.

◀ This thesis statement has been
revised and reflects
a targeted approach
to the argument.
This sentence is
clear and can stand
alone as a complete
representation of
the argument.
◀ During revision,
the student found
additional research
surrounding this
topic. Additional
information was
added, more evidence was integrated, and a rough
single paragraph
was revised into
two fully developed
pets in need is large and has only increased over the years. The numbers grow because too many pets are allowed to breed freely without control. According to environmentalist Jim Motavalli (1995), the
average female dog can produce two litters a year, which means that
one unspayed girl dog can be responsible for 67,000 births during
her fertile years if her offspring are also left intact and not spayed or
neutered. Such prolific breeding increased the pet population exponentially with each litter born. Spay and neuter programs have been
found to be most effective in reducing the pet population along with
increased adoptions from shelters and rescues (Frank, 2004). A simple
choice to adopt a pet from a shelter can greatly and positively impact
the entire ecological and ethical issues surrounding pet overpopulation today.
Despite the overabundance of dogs available, some people seek
out specialty dogs bred through commercial enterprise. Designer and
purebred dogs are created by artificial genetic modification through
selective breeding practices. Since humans have selectively bred dogs
for physical and behavioral characteristics through inbreeding, pedigree dogs can be plagued by genetic disease (Farrell, Schoenebeck,
Wiener, Clements, & Summers, 2015). Breeders who work in commercial enterprises are focused on breeding for desirable sellable characteristics when breeding an animal as a business. With a focus on business, animal welfare can become an afterthought.
Any selective breeding practices can result in exacerbated medical conditions in canines. Because historical breed standards were
focused on aesthetics and temperament with disregard for health,
increased medical issues are now prevalent in pedigree dogs. Indrebø
(2008) found that it will take “several generations to change the breed
through genetic selection in order to eradicate the unhealthy overtyped dogs” (pp. 1–2). Shelters and rescue organizations do not participate in selective breeding for designer or purebred animals. Instead,
rescue organizations accept animals in any variety until a permanent
home can be found.
Rescue organizations do not breed animals, therefore not participating in selective breeding for designer or purebred animals. Pet
◀ The student has
worked on transitions during the
revision process.
Paragraphs now
flow with more
intention and ease.
Each and every
paragraph begins
with a topic sentence, contains a
clear claim, and
presents evidence
that is properly
cited in APA style.

◀ Nearly all evidence is integrated through
paraphrases and
summaries. Quotes
are used sparingly
and only when
stores, however, are supplied by breeders who do participate in selective breeding but may not take the steps necessary to ensure healthy
pets. The only way breeders can ethically create healthy litters is
through ongoing diagnostic screening of all dogs along with genetic
testing, regardless of arbitrarily chosen aesthetics of the animal (Farrell et al., 2015). There are 10 recommendations for ethical breeding
programs that require a number of actions, including: all breeders
must only breed very healthy dogs, breeders must continually calculate percentages for breeding stock, breeders must limit “matador
breeding,” breeders must immediately exclude female dogs who are
unable to give birth naturally, breeders have to screen all breeding animals for polygenetic diseases, breeders must conduct DNA testing on
all breeding animals, and breeders must practice natural puppy rearing with birth mothers (Indrebø, 2008). These recommendations are
essential for ethical breeding yet are not mandated by any regulation
or law. Without firm regulations and legal ramifications, commercial
breeders can continue to breed animals for profit and without regard
for the health and welfare of animals.
There is a rich history in dog breeding and Kennel Club registration.
Some people feel that pedigree dogs represent an important cultural
history. It has been found, however, that desire for a purebred dog is
more likely to be based on popular culture trends than more rational or
logical decision-making processes (Ghirlanda, Acerbi, & Herzog, 2014).
For instance, films featuring Lassie led to more demand for the collie
breed. Rin Tin Tin’s popularity led to more demand for the German
shepherd breed. Popular celebrities photographed with purse-dwelling chihuahuas increase the demand for teacup-sized chihuahuas. The
desire for designer and pedigree dogs is often influenced by fleeting
cultural trends rather than complete analysis of the situation and the
animal’s best interests. Such activity negates the assertion that designer
and pedigree breeding is solely an asset to society, particularly since
trends do not contain regard for ethical treatment of animals. Dogs that
appear to be designer and pedigree breeds can be found in shelters
alongside obvious mixed breeds (Strand, 2015). Without documentation, however, pedigree cannot be proven for a homeless pet.
◀ The rebuttal is
supported by credible evidence from
multiple sources.
Just as there is no assurance of breed when adopting from a shelter
or rescue group, there is no guarantee of a healthy pet when adopted
from a shelter where the animal’s history is unknown. While it is true
that there is no guarantee of health when a pet is adopted from a shelter, adoptions fees do not financially support breeders who are breeding animals with disregard for health and welfare. Concerns over the
commercialization of dog breeding have led a number of municipalities across the country to ban the sale of puppy-mill animals due to the
animal welfare concerns (Taylor, 2015). Purebred dogs suffer needlessly and genetic diversity, as exhibited in mutts from the pound, is
preferable for a healthy and stable pet (Jeppsson, 2014). While there
are no guarantees when adopting from a shelter or rescue organization, the overall impact of adopting pets rather than investing in commercial breeding is positive.
Pet overpopulation is a real concern in America, negatively impacting quality of life and environmental safety. Additional animals bred
through selective breeding for popular characteristics not only add to
the pet population, but they also suffer from exacerbated medical conditions and genetic disease. Meanwhile, shelters and rescue groups are
overflowing with homeless pets in need. Shelters and rescue groups
vaccinate and spay or neuter each pet before releasing them to prescreened families, reducing the potential for pet population growth
and assuring better potential quality of life. The sale of commercially
bred puppies from pet stores should be banned unless all ethical recommendations become legally mandatory. Therefore, families should
first consider adopting a dog from a shelter or rescue organization
rather than purchasing a puppy from an unregulated commercial
enterprise like a pet store or large breeding enterprise.
There is an appropriate page break at the end
of the paper, which is
longer than 1,500 words.
The reference list will
begin on the next page.

◀ The student corrected all contractions during the
editing process.
Contractions like
“it’s” are not used in
academic writing.
◀ The conclusion
has been revised
to include all main
topics of the argument with a strong
call to action that
restates the thesis
Farrell, L. L., Schoenebeck, J. J., Wiener, P., Clements, D. N., & Summers, K. M. (2015). The challenges of pedigree dog health:
Approaches to combating inherited disease. Canine Genetics
and Epidemiology. doi:10.1186/s40575-015-0014-9
Frank, J. (2004). An interactive model of human and companion animal dynamics: The ecology and economics of dog overpopulation and the human costs of addressing the problem. Human
Ecology 32(1), 107–130.
Ghirlanda, S., Acerbi, A., & Herzog, H. (2014). Dog movie stars and dog
breed popularity: A case study in media influence on choice.
PLoS One, 9(9), 1–5. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0106565
Indrebø, A. (2008). Animal welfare in modern dog breeding [Special Section]. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 50(56), 1–6.
Jeppsson, S. (2014). Purebred dogs and canine wellbeing. Journal
of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 27(3), 417–430.
Motavalli, J. (1995). Our agony over animals. E: The Environmental
Magazine, 6(5), 28.
Paterson, J. (2011). A greener pawprint. E: The Environmental
Magazine, 22(3), 22–27.
Strand, P. (2015). NAIA study confirms fewer dogs, scarce purebreds in
US animal shelters. Retrieved from http://www.naiaonline.
Taylor, J. S. (2015). Anti-puppy mill legislation across the country is
dogging pet stores. ABA Journal. Retrieved from http://www
◀ Additional
sources have been
added to the reference list. All sources
cited in-text are
listed accurately
with a full reference
Gender Inequality / The impact of inequality between men and women on our society: Rough
Qaswarah Owaydhah
ENG122: English Composition II
Dr. Richard Green
October 10, 2020
[no notes on this page]
Impact of Gender Inequality to Society: Rough Draft
Gender inequality affects everyone, including men. Stereotypes about how different
gender should begin in childhood and follow us through to adulthood. Throughout the past few
decades, disclosure on gender inequality has dominated local, national, and international policies
and news. Although everyone experiences gender inequality in different ways, some similarities
can be pinpointed to societal expectations. It is important to note that gender inequality is not
only perpetuated exclusively through differential access and control of resources. Gender norms
and stereotypes have continually reinforced gendered identities and constrained men’s and
women’s behaviors in ways that have resulted in inequality. Notably, gender relationships are
changing with increased globalization. Nowadays, inequalities between men and women are
questioned in every sphere: home, work, and even public affair. Yet cold hard facts continue to
show that gender inequalities continue to persist, even with social and economic transformation
in the society. According to World Economic Forum (2017), “gender inequality continues to be a
persistent problem, with the gender gap in economic participation/opportunity; and
health/survival actually widening rather than getting better.” This is an indication that gender
inequality is an issue that needs to be addressed in our society. Although some might deny
inequality between men and women, inequality between genders has been noticeable in recent
times. Equality between both genders must be established to reduce the imbalance and hence
create a fairer society.
Gender power relations have resulted in a legacy in which women are more likely to be
disadvantaged than men. As a result, women have had less access to information, resources,
decision-making, benefits, and fewer rights within households and even public life (Ferrant,
2011). Unchallenged cultures of male dominance have, at the same time, resulted in
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subordinations and even exclusion of many women. The impact of women’s exclusions and
subordination has meant that a significant amount of the world’s talent, expertise, knowledge,
and experience has been sidelined. Consequently, our society has been left to operate under 50
percent of its capacity, which then significantly derails developments and progress (Ferrant,
Gender inequality represents a colossal loss of human potential, with costs affecting both
men and women. Loss of potential comes from restrictions that prevent equal and free
participation of both genders in economic activities (Klasen & Santos Silva, 2018). Our society
has generally experienced increased poverty levels in times where gender inequality was higher.
Poverty and gender inequality are intertwined, and the change in a community’s status
significantly depends on the freedom of each gender. As Klasen & Santos Silva (2018) argues,
poverty elimination significantly relies on addressing the disproportionate burden of poverty,
access to health services and education, and, most importantly, lack of abundant opportunities for
women. Women continue to bear the significant impact of poverty as they face inequalities that
hinder their ability to progress positively in society. Women empowerment is a central
precondition needed in society if poverty elimination is achieved at significant proportions.
Generally, gender inequality has slowed down economic progress in society as cultural
stereotypes continue to limit human resources’ effective utilization.
Rigid cultural norms related to gender and power have also left men vulnerable to
violence and are even less likely to seek health care services than women. The pre-existing view
of hegemonic masculinity forced many men to conform to standards, which has hindered their
progress (O’Brien, Major & Gilbert, 2012). Particularly, men find themselves in a position where
they have to put up a front and not show any weakness signs. In most cases, men have resorted to
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maladaptive behaviors to cope with the continual pressure to maintain the façade of strength. On
the other hand, women have been allowed to share their emotions and struggles openly, which
has been a great help to their mental health. This significant disparity in conduct and rigi …
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