SOLUTION: GCC Asian American Women Carry the Burden of Complex Construals About Self Discussion

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Original Submission ☹️
Ethnic Studies is part of a necessary step in
making people civic minded
Awesome Answer 😃
Ethnic studies promotes civic minded citizens.
Civic minded is described as “a preparation for
effective citizenship which requires students to
acquire and apply knowledge, to exercise critical
analysis, and to pursue lifelong learning.” Ethnic
studies accomplishes this preparation by
integrating multiculturalism in order to transform
students into civic minded citizens. In order for
students to be transformed into civic minded
citizens, they must be aware and be able to
empathize with those that are different than
themselves.
Throughout the unit, the idea of effective
citizenship requires the development of critical
thinking. It is argued that Ethnic Studies
accomplishes this by integrating multiculturalism in
order to transform students into civic minded
citizens. The authors and lectures present the
value of developing an awareness of those that
are different. Conclusive arguments from the unit
present that empathy, awareness of the diversity
of its’ citizens can transform students into civic
minded thinkers.
One article from the unit discusses why Chicano
studies specifically, is an important class to have in
the El Paso area. Felipe de Ortega y Gasca wrote
the article, “ The Hispanic outlook in higher
education” to give the audience a better
understanding of the importance of ethnic studies,
focusing on Chicano studies. “Our objectives for
Chicano studies were two fold: not only would
Chicano studies help us to enlighten both
Chicanos and non-Chicanos about who we were,
but Chicano studies would enable us to promote
our visibility beyond maintenance workers, janitors,
and gardeners” (Gasca).
One article from the unit discusses the value of
building empathy and awareness is Felipe de
Ortega y Gasca. In Ortega and Gasca’s article,
Why Chicano Studies, it specifically demonstrates
why building a wider awareness of Chicano
Students can create civic minded students. Felipe
de Ortega y Gasca state, “Our objectives for
Chicano studies were two fold: not only would
Chicano studies help us to enlighten both
Chicanos and non-Chicanos about who we were,
but Chicano studies would enable us to promote
our visibility beyond maintenance workers, janitors,
and gardeners” (Gasca).
Gasca supports the idea of multiculturalism by
suggesting that we implement a class that caters
to the diversity of his community. His article should
inspire others to adopt this same principle in order
to educate students all over the United States to
become more empathetic towards other cultures.
His comment on how Chicanos are perceived by
many as mostly maintenance workers, janitors,
and gardeners is solid ground for why we need
these studies in order to avoid stereotyping.
This demonstrates the value of Chicano Studies, a
civic-minded course, by suggesting that the
implementation of Chicanos Studies exemplifies
the need to make visible a community that may
have been otherwise ignored due to the myopic
nature of history. His argument inspires others to
adopt the principle of Ethnic Studies in order to
educate all students to become more empathetic
towards other cultures. In this case, it would be
the Chicano Community. In addition, his
argument demonstrates how because Chicanos
are perceived by many as mostly maintenance
Original Submission ☹️
Awesome Answer 😃
workers, janitors, and gardeners, Chicanos
Studies clarify such limited stereotype.
Unit 1 Sample A
#2 How does American Exceptionalism counter American values?
ANSWER: American Exceptionalism counters American values. American
Exceptionalism is the idea that, in short, America is the best nation in the world.
AMERICAN VALUES CAN BE DEFINED AS “wholesome” values such as liberty, justice
and democracy. EXPLAIN: The concept of American Exceptionalism is tied closely to
the concept of Manifest Destiny, which asserts that rapid global expansion is divine
prophecy for the United States. THE UNIT demonstrates this is a problematic view
because it reflects onto a nation otherwise marred by struggle and reform the
experiences of the privileged few; thereby unjustly silencing and ostracizing the
minorities that helped build America, and stripping them of their identities by alienating
their experiences as unAmerican and irrelevant. American Exceptionalism, then, is
nothing more than a thinly veiled political agenda to facilitate and promote a culture of
ignorance, bias and mass hysteria under the guise of “wholesome” values such as
liberty, justice and democracy. SUPPORT 1: For example, in “Anti-Intellectualism is
Killing America,” author David Niose asserts that “many of [America’s] social problems
are rooted in the rejection of critical thinking or, conversely, the glorification of the
emotional and irrational,” and argues further that, “corporate interests encourage anti-intellectualism, conditioning Americans into conformity and passive acceptance of
institutional dominance.” COMMENT 1: This is a critical analysis of the hypocrisy that is
American exceptionalism, and the foolishly blind optimism that it promotes under the
label of “patriotism” within the ignorant masses so as to subdue them, in order to
efficiently maintain the systems of power that favor corporate America. SUPPORT 2: In
addition, “White Terrorism Is as Old as America,” author Brit Bennett draws a compelling
conclusion in stating that, “In America’s contemporary imagination, terrorism is foreign
and brown.” In that one succinct statement, Bennett has described essentially
everything wrong with the ideology of American Exceptionalism, and how it defines
“whiteness” as inherently American by projecting a very limited and privileged
experience of the glory of expansion and capitalism as relevant to the fundamentals of
this country. COMMENT 2: This demonstrates how American Exceptionalism equates
blind optimism with patriotism and just misses the point that white denial and white
suppression of minorities is in itself a great act of terrorism that defies the very ideals of
liberty, justice and democracy that America seeks to promote.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Report Information from ProQuest
July 09 2014 13:06
_______________________________________________________________
09 July 2014
ProQuest
Table of contents
1. Luscious Latinas: The pros and cons of an evolving stereotype………………………………………………………… 1
09 July 2014
ii
ProQuest
Document 1 of 1
Luscious Latinas: The pros and cons of an evolving stereotype
Author: Menard, Valerie
ProQuest document link
Abstract (Abstract): Professionally, Latinas seem much less affected by this stereotype than by one that
portrays them as passive and gullible. The former Affirmative Action officer and assistant to the president at the
University of Houston, Caram asserts that she sees Latinas perceived as servants or maids rather than luscious
Latinas. “Unfortunately, you seem to have two extremes, and neither one gives us credit for having intelligence.
We’re either maids or sex symbols.” According to Elisa Sanchez, president of MANA A National Latina
Organization. “I’ve never considered that we’re stereotyped because of our beauty, but I do know that
professionally, people are most surprised when we [Latinas] speak up.” A native of New Mexico, Sanchez says
that in her position at MANA the most common complaint has been the assumption that Latinas are inarticulate
and subservient. “I think people assume that because our men are macho, we have to be passive.”
“Hollywood and Latinas have had a long-standing and successful relationship,” says Garc#237;a. “Hollywood
has understood the allure and popularity of Latinas and has always found a way to capitalize on that. The fact
that we can point to at least one Latina who represents an archetype for that decade is the evidence. The same
cannot be said of other ethnic actresses.” Typecasting and stereotypes are the nature of the business, he says.
“Hollywood has always looked for `types.’ There’s just not enough time in a two-and-a-half-hour movie to
present a real human being.” Garc#237;a, who developed and taught a class on Latinos in film at the University
of California-Santa Barbara for twelve years, says that young actors merely want a job at first and accept
stereotypical roles. “Do you think it would have been fair to expect Hayek to refuse the role in From Dusk Till
Dawn, where she was asked to wear a bikini, give a blowout dance performance, and have the camera stay
focused on her for at least five minutes? This was a showstopper role, and she has used it to move on to other
roles. There’s nothing negative about it.”
Hernandez does admit, however, that her own experience as a young actress in Hollywood in the eighties was
limited by Latina stereotypes: “At the time I was auditioning for roles they tended to fall into three categories -the luscious Latina, maids, or illegal immigrants. The luscious Latina role was just as denigrating at the time
because the roles usually called for the Latina to be sexually easy as well. In one film, Losin’ It, a young Tom
Cruise, along with two other white actors, played characters who devise a plan to go to Tijuana for easy sex.
Hernandez was cast as one of the Latinas they encounter in Mexico. “Those parts still exist, but the situation in
Hollywood for Latinas has improved a lot,” says Hernandez. “Although she got some attention from her sexy
dance, Salma was wasted in From Dusk Till Dawn. However, she has not been typecast. The proof is that she
will play Frida Kahlo in an upcoming film about the Mexican artist. Not long ago we successfully protested
against a film on the same topic that attempted to cast a non-Latina as Kahlo. At the time just two Latinas were
allowed to audition because Hollywood contended that mere were no other qualified Latinas. Five years later, a
Mexicana has been cast in the role of a Mexicana. That’s progress.”
Links: Check for full-text in other GCC Library Databases or Print Holdings
Full text: Luscious Latinas: The pros and cons of an evolving stereotype
More movies are showing it. More magazines are showing it. Even television has begun to show it. The reason
is simple — sex sells, and Latinas have always been very much a part of that equation. When it comes to the
bankability of the “Luscious Latina,” dramatized throughout history by actresses like Dolores Del Rio, Rita
Hayworth, and today’s Salma Hayek, no explanation is necessary. But what has evolved is a stereotype with a
double edge — the positive side of the stereotype is a powerful and sexy Latina epitomized by Hayek, and the
09 July 2014
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ProQuest
negative side is a boisterous, oversexed Latina, such as Charo. Outside Hollywood, Latinas deal with this
stereotype on a day-to-day basis, but many aren’t sure it’s all that bad.
“Considering the vast genetic mix that makes up most Latinos — from the indigenous to the Moors — it makes
sense that we would be considered a physically attractive group of people,” says Dr. Dorothy Caram, with the
Institute for Hispanic Culture in Houston, Texas. “For too long, Latinas have been discouraged from being
assertive and self-confident. I think it’s good that we’ve gained confidence in our beauty, as long as we show off
our brains at the same time.”
Professionally, Latinas seem much less affected by this stereotype than by one that portrays them as passive
and gullible. The former Affirmative Action officer and assistant to the president at the University of Houston,
Caram asserts that she sees Latinas perceived as servants or maids rather than luscious Latinas.
“Unfortunately, you seem to have two extremes, and neither one gives us credit for having intelligence. We’re
either maids or sex symbols.” According to Elisa Sanchez, president of MANA A National Latina Organization.
“I’ve never considered that we’re stereotyped because of our beauty, but I do know that professionally, people
are most surprised when we [Latinas] speak up.” A native of New Mexico, Sanchez says that in her position at
MANA the most common complaint has been the assumption that Latinas are inarticulate and subservient. “I
think people assume that because our men are macho, we have to be passive.”
Historian and feminist Cynthia Orozco believes that women across cultures must contend with several
stereotypes, and one of the most typical is the sex object. In her classes at Eastern New Mexico University at
Ruidoso, Orozco says, she asks her class to name famous Latinas from New Mexico. Her question is usually
greeted with blank stares. “Latinas accept the stereotype because looks are connected to our self-esteem. The
problem is only a very few Latinas actually benefit from the stereotype. Most working-class Latinas don’t share
the privilege and are discriminated against. We should be basing our self-esteem on our history, not on
something as fleeting as looks.”
There is no better medium for promoting stereotypes than movies, and Hollywood hasn’t ignored Latinas. Del
Rio initially broke the color barrier for Latinas in Hollywood in the twenties. Because the Mexican actress fit the
mold of an ” exotic,” she was cast in trendy films set in the South Pacific. Following on her heels was the first
Latina spitfire, Lupe Vélez. Considered a B-movie actress, Vélez created the comedic spitfire role by speaking
with a heavy accent and resorting to rapid-fire Spanish when annoyed. The spitfire image — an oversexed and
overly emotional woman — was considered unflattering. “But the technique of exaggerating an accent is just an
effective comedic tool. Desi Amaz used it, as did Charo in the seventies,” says Philip Garcia, sociology
professor and administrator at California State University.
In the thirties and forties, Hayworth’s popularity increased, but only after she received a Hollywood
transformation. She originally played a raven-haired dark lady and was most noted for a barroom dance scene
to “La Cucaracha” in Hit the Saddle (1937). In The Hispanic Almanac, Nicolás Kanellos writes that it wasn’t until
Hayworth married’ businessman Edward Judson, “who helped her see that being a Hispanic limited her to work
as a cinematic loose woman,” that she changed her image. Hayworth was transformed from the dark lady to an
auburn-haired love goddess. A contemporary of Hayworth’s, Carmen Miranda, was typecast as a spitfire. Her
singing talents notwithstanding, she starred in several films, but always in the same character.
Other Latinas successfully followed the path of these pioneers — Rita Moreno in the fifties, Raquel Welch in the
sixties and seventies, Charo (a Spanish singer who was a regular on the Tonight Show and the Love Boat) in
the seventies, Sonia Braga in the eighties, Jennifer Lopez and Hayek in the nineties — though never quite
escaping the sexually charged roles still set aside for Latinas. Hayek appeared in Mi Vida Loca (1994) but
created her big splash in American theaters when Robert Rodriguez cast her in Desperado (1996). Although
she received credit for that smart performance (her character just happened to be Latina and luscious), her
“breakthrough” performances followed Desperado. Indeed, Hayek has practically reintroduced the spitfire and
the dark lady. In Rodriguez’s From Dusk Till Dawn, Hayek made a cameo appearance in a seductive dance
09 July 2014
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number in which she wears a bikini, a headdress, and an Albino boa constrictor. The beautiful Mexican actress
created a stunningly provocative moment in the film with barely a line of dialogue. In the 1997 movie Fools Rush
In, she was paired with Matthew Perry in a romantic comedy. The film explores the culture clash between
Latinos and whites, but Hayek is clearly the spitfire to Perry’s cardboard Anglo male.
“Hollywood and Latinas have had a long-standing and successful relationship,” says García. “Hollywood has
understood the allure and popularity of Latinas and has always found a way to capitalize on that. The fact that
we can point to at least one Latina who represents an archetype for that decade is the evidence. The same
cannot be said of other ethnic actresses.” Typecasting and stereotypes are the nature of the business, he says.
“Hollywood has always looked for `types.’ There’s just not enough time in a two-and-a-half-hour movie to
present a real human being.” García, who developed and taught a class on Latinos in film at the University of
California-Santa Barbara for twelve years, says that young actors merely want a job at first and accept
stereotypical roles. “Do you think it would have been fair to expect Hayek to refuse the role in From Dusk Till
Dawn, where she was asked to wear a bikini, give a blowout dance performance, and have the camera stay
focused on her for at least five minutes? This was a showstopper role, and she has used it to move on to other
roles. There’s nothing negative about it.”
Any notoriety for a Latina actress will promote Latina actresses in general, says Bel Hernandez, former actress
and publisher of a Hollywood trade publication for Latinos, Latin Heat. Hayek’s work so far has done nothing to
denigrate Latinas, asserts Hernandez. “I think she’s gutsy. Yes, she happens to be very luscious, but in
interviews and judging from her work, I don’t think anyone thinks Salma is just a sex kitten. She’s very
outspoken about the need for Hollywood to recognize Latino actors. When I think `Salma,’ I think `gutsy.'”
Hernandez does admit, however, that her own experience as a young actress in Hollywood in the eighties was
limited by Latina stereotypes: “At the time I was auditioning for roles they tended to fall into three categories -the luscious Latina, maids, or illegal immigrants. The luscious Latina role was just as denigrating at the time
because the roles usually called for the Latina to be sexually easy as well. In one film, Losin’ It, a young Tom
Cruise, along with two other white actors, played characters who devise a plan to go to Tijuana for easy sex.
Hernandez was cast as one of the Latinas they encounter in Mexico. “Those parts still exist, but the situation in
Hollywood for Latinas has improved a lot,” says Hernandez. “Although she got some attention from her sexy
dance, Salma was wasted in From Dusk Till Dawn. However, she has not been typecast. The proof is that she
will play Frida Kahlo in an upcoming film about the Mexican artist. Not long ago we successfully protested
against a film on the same topic that attempted to cast a non-Latina as Kahlo. At the time just two Latinas were
allowed to audition because Hollywood contended that mere were no other qualified Latinas. Five years later, a
Mexicana has been cast in the role of a Mexicana. That’s progress.”
Stereotypical roles do cause actors dilemmas, but they’re not exclusive to Latinas. Actors like John Wayne, who
was typecast as a cowboy, and Al Pacino, who is typecast as an Italian New York tough guy, illustrate how
pervasive the problem is, asserts García. “There’s no denying that the roles offered to Latino actors in general
have been limited. The biggest limitation has been that they [Latino actors] don’t get to play everyday people,
and for Latinas that includes playing hardworking moms or professionals.”
Orozco agrees. “We have many more talented actresses in Hollywood, like Lupe Ontiveros or Elizabeth Peña,
but because they haven’t been cast as sex symbols, we forget about their work. But they have presented
Latinas in film that are much more real and identifiable.”
Through the decades, Hollywood has perpetuated the image of the luscious Latina. It continues to have an
effect on the success of Latina actresses, but in the everyday lives of Latinas nationwide, its …
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