SOLUTION: IT Project Management 9th Ed Ch 6 Project Schedule Management Summary

Get Custom Essay on SOLUTION: IT Project Management 9th Ed Ch 6 Project Schedule Management Summary

Let Our Team of Pofessional Writers Take Care of Your Paper.

Chapter 6:
Project Schedule
Management
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition
Note: See the text itself for full citations
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Learning Objectives (1 of 2)
• Illustrate the importance that project schedules and good
project schedule management can have in helping to make
projects successful
• Discuss the process of planning schedule management
• Define activities as the basis for developing project schedules
• Describe how project managers use network diagrams and
dependencies to assist in activity sequencing
• Explain how various tools and techniques help project
managers perform activity duration estimates
• Use a Gantt chart for planning and tracking schedule
information, find the critical path for a project, and describe
how critical chain scheduling and the Program Evaluation and
Review Technique (PERT) affect schedule development
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Learning Objectives (2 of 2)
• Compare how schedule management is addressed using Agile
vs. more predictive project approaches
• Discuss how reality checks and discipline are involved in
controlling and managing changes to the project schedule
• Describe how project management software can assist in
project schedule management and review words of caution
before using this software
• Discuss considerations for agile/adaptive environments
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
The Importance of Project Schedules (1 of 3)
• Managers often cite delivering projects on time as one of their
biggest challenges
• Time has the least amount of flexibility; it passes no matter what
happens on a project
• Individual work styles and cultural differences may also cause
schedule conflicts
• Different cultures and even entire countries have different attitudes
about schedules
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Media Snapshot
• In contrast to the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympic Games
(see Chapter 4’s Media Snapshot), planning and scheduling
was very different for the 2004 Athens Summer Olympic
Games and the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympic Games
• Many articles were written before the opening ceremonies in Athens
predicting that the facilities would not be ready in time
• The Greeks even made fun of critics by having construction workers
pretend to still be working as the ceremonies began, but the games
cost more than twice the planned budget
• The 2014 Winter Olympic Games in Sochi, Russia, suffered
even greater financial loss
• Originally budgeted at $12 billion, final costs reached over $51 billion,
making it the most expensive games in history
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
The Importance of Project Schedules (2 of 3)
• Project time management processes







Planning schedule management
Defining activities
Sequencing activities
Estimating activity resources
Estimating activity durations
Developing the schedule
Controlling the schedule
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
The Importance of Project Schedules (3 of 3)
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Planning Schedule Management
• Elements of a schedule management plan







Project schedule model development
Scheduling methodology
Level of accuracy and units of measure
Control thresholds
Rules of performance measurement
Reporting formats
Process descriptions
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Defining Activities (1 of 2)
• Defining activities involves identifying the specific actions that
will produce the project deliverables in enough detail to
determine resource and schedule estimates
• Activity list: a tabulation of activities to be included on a project
schedule
• Activity name, activity identifier or number, and brief description of the activity
• Activity attributes provide more information
• Predecessors, successors, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource
requirements, constraints, imposed dates, and assumptions related to the
activity
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Defining Activities (2 of 2)
• A milestone is a significant event that normally has no
duration
• It often takes several activities and a lot of work to complete a
milestone
• They’re useful tools for setting schedule goals and monitoring
progress
• Examples: obtaining customer sign-off on key documents or completion of
specific products
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
What Went Wrong?
• At the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), poor time
management was one of the reasons behind the failure of
Trilogy
• System was supposed to integrate intelligence within the Bureau
• In May 2006, the Government Accounting Agency said that the Trilogy
project failed at its core mission of improving the FBI’s investigative
abilities and was plagued with missed milestones and escalating
costs
• Sentinel replaced Trilogy in 2007
• During a test exercise in 2011, Sentinel experienced two outages, and
the FBI determined that the current hardware structure was
inadequate
• In 2014, the system still wasn’t working well
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Sequencing Activities (1 of 6)
• Sequencing process involves evaluating the reasons for
dependencies and the different types of dependencies
• A dependency or relationship is the sequencing of project activities
or tasks
• Mandatory dependencies: inherent in the nature of the work being performed
on a project, sometimes referred to as hard logic
• Discretionary dependencies: defined by the project team, sometimes referred
to as soft logic. and should be used with care since they may limit later
scheduling options
• External dependencies: involve relationships between project and non-project
activities
Sequencing Activities (2 of 6)
• Network diagrams are the preferred technique for showing
activity sequencing
• Schematic display of the logical relationships among, or sequencing
of, project activities
• Two main formats are the arrow and precedence diagramming
methods
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Sequencing Activities (3 of 6)
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Sequencing Activities (4 of 6)
• Arrow diagramming method (ADM) (i.e., activity-on-arrow
network diagrams)




Activities are represented by arrows
Nodes or circles are the starting and ending points of activities
Only show finish-to-start dependencies
Refer to the text for the step-by-step process of creating AOA
diagrams
• Precedence diagramming method (PDM)
• Network diagramming technique in which boxes represent activities
• Types of dependencies or relationships between activities




Finish-to-start
Start-to-start
Finish-to-finish
Start-to-finish
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Sequencing Activities (5 of 6)
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Sequencing Activities (6 of 6)
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Estimating Activity Durations
• Duration includes the actual amount of time worked on an
activity plus elapsed time
• Effort is the number of workdays or work hours required to complete
a task and does not normally equal duration
• People doing the work should help create estimates
• An expert should review them
• A three-point estimate is an estimate that includes an
optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimate
• Three-point estimates are needed for PERT and Monte Carlo
simulations
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Advice for Young Professionals
• Some people find estimating to be challenging, especially for
their own work
• It is very important to develop this skill
• Practice estimating how long it takes you to do different activities and then take
actual measurements
• Define the activity in detail to help make better estimates
• If you realize that an activity estimate might not be a good one, let your team
know as soon as possible so that adjustments can be made early in the project
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Developing the Schedule
• Uses results of the other time management processes to
determine the start and end date of the project
• Ultimate goal is to create a realistic project schedule that provides a
basis for monitoring project progress for the time dimension of the
project
• Important tools and techniques




Gantt charts
Critical path analysis
Critical chain scheduling
PERT analysis
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Gantt Charts (1 of 5)
• Provide a standard format for displaying project schedule
information by listing project activities and corresponding
start and finish dates in a calendar form
• Symbols




Black diamond: milestones
Thick black bars: summary tasks
Light gray horizontal bars: durations of tasks
Arrows: dependencies between tasks
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Gantt Charts (2 of 5)
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Gantt Charts (3 of 5)
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Gantt Charts (4 of 5)
• Adding milestones to Gantt charts
• Many people like to focus on meeting milestones, especially for large
projects
• Milestones emphasize important events or accomplishments on projects
• SMART Criteria for milestones





Specific
Measurable
Assignable
Realistic
Time-framed
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Best Practice
• Shawn Anchor suggests the 20-second rule in his book, The
Happiness Advantage
• People prefer the path of least resistance
• For example, if you have to wait in line 20 seconds to get a second scoop of ice
cream, you might resist it
• Anchor recommends making it more difficult for yourself to be
distracted at work by keeping email or websites closed while you are
working
• Save time by adding time to the distracting behaviors at work
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Gantt Charts (5 of 5)
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Critical Path Method (CPM) (1 of 2)
• Network diagramming technique used to predict total project
duration
• Critical path: series of activities that determine the earliest time by
which the project can be completed
• The longest path through the network diagram and has the least amount of
slack or float; amount of time an activity may be delayed without delaying a
succeeding activity or the project finish date
• Calculating the critical path
• Develop a good network diagram and add the duration estimates for
all activities on each path through the network diagram
• Longest path is the critical path
• If one or more of the activities on the critical path takes longer than
planned, the whole project schedule will slip unless the project
manager takes corrective action
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Critical Path Method (CPM) (2 of 2)
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Growing Grass Can Be on the Critical Path
• The fact that its name includes the word critical does not
mean that it includes all critical activities
• Only accounts for time
• Example: growing grass for Disney’s Animal Kingdom
• There can be more than one critical path if the lengths of two
or more paths are the same
• Project managers should closely monitor performance of activities
on the critical path to avoid late project completion
• Critical path can change as the project progresses
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Using Critical Path Analysis to Make Schedule
Trade-Offs (1 of 3)
• Free slack or free float
• Amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early
start of any immediately following activities
• Total slack or total float
• Amount of time an activity may be delayed from its early start
without delaying the planned project finish date
• Forward pass
• Determines the early start and finish dates
• Backward pass
• Determines the late start and finish dates
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Using Critical Path Analysis to Make Schedule
Trade-Offs (2 of 3)
Information Technology Project Management, Ninth Edition. © 2019 Cengage. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except
for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Using Critical Path Analysis to Make Schedule
Trade-Offs (3 of 3)
Task Name
Start
Finish
Late Start
Late Finish
Free Slack
Total Slack
A
8/3/15
8/3/15
8/5/15
8/5/15
0d
2d
B
8/3/15
8/4/15
8/3/15
8/4/15
0d
0d
C
8/3/15
8/5/15
8/5/15
8/7/15
0d
2d
D
8/4/15
8/7/15
8/6/15
8/11/15
2d
2d
E
8/5/15
8/11/15
8/5/15
8/11/15
0d

Purchase answer to see full
attachment

Calculate the price for this paper
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Try it now!

Calculate the price for this paper

We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

Best Quality Essays has stood as the world’s leading custom essay writing services providers. Once you enter all the details in the order form under the place order button, the rest is up to us.

Essays

Essay Writing Services

At Best Quality Essays, we prioritize on all aspects that bring about a good grade such as impeccable grammar, proper structure, zero-plagiarism and conformance to guidelines. Our experienced team of writers will help you completed your essays and other assignments.

Admissions

Admission and Business Papers

Be assured that you’ll definitely get accepted to the Master’s level program at any university once you enter all the details in the order form. We won’t leave you here; we will also help you secure a good position in your aspired workplace by creating an outstanding resume or portfolio once you place an order.

Editing

Editing and Proofreading

Our skilled editing and writing team will help you restructure you paper, paraphrase, correct grammar and replace plagiarized sections on your paper just on time. The service is geared toward eliminating any mistakes and rather enhancing better quality.

Coursework

Technical papers

We have writers in almost all fields including the most technical fields. You don’t have to worry about the complexity of your paper. Simply enter as much details as possible in the place order section.