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A Study on Cultivation of Pragmatic Competence in English Teaching for Preschool Education
in China

The pragmatic competence approaches are the methods that are applied in school to improve a
better understanding and application of the education taught in class. The use of the pragmatic
competence approaches in preschools in China to teach English is one of the successful ways of
promoting the appropriateness of using English among the children. The current situation in
China is that people are not effective in communicating in English. The progress of English as a
common language in the world. The challenges facing the application of the language could be
solved if the children in preschool are taught how to apply it appropriately and to avoid the
common mistakes that affect the language. Some of the recommendations in the above analysis
are that the stakeholders should be taught how to avoid the challenges that affect children
through the application of policies and knowledge that supports the use of pragmatic approaches
in teaching English in the schools.
Keywords: Pragmatic competence, China, Preschool, English, teaching, communication.

Analysis of Pragmatic Competence …………………………………………………………………………………… 4
Theory and Practical Significance of Topic………………………………………………………………………… 5
Purpose, Significance, and Rationale…………………………………………………………………………………. 5
Basic Structure, Main Research Methods and Main Content ………………………………………………… 6
Domestic and Foreign Research Trends and Own Opinions …………………………………………………. 6
Statement of problem …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7
The main content of Paper ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
Literature Review………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
Case Study of how Pragmatic Competence Affects Chinese People Abroad …………………….. 10
Technology and its Impacts on Pragmatic Competence in Preschool English Teaching ……… 13
Critique of the Use of Technology to Promote Pragmatic Competence in English Education in
China ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14
The critique against the Government’s use of Pragmatic Competence in Preschools ………….. 16
Research Methods …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18
Completion Deadline and Main Measures Taken ………………………………………………………………. 18
Applying Philosophy in Pragmatic Competence in China Preschools ………………………………….. 19
Overview of the Philosophies ……………………………………………………………………………………… 19
Case Study: Observation of Learning in a Preschool in Beijing, China …………………………….. 24
Recommendations …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27
Defects of the Paper and Future Research Directions ………………………………………………………… 28
Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28
References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 30

A Study on Cultivation of Pragmatic Competence in English Teaching for Preschool Education
in China
The education system in the country is a critical factor that determines the way the sector
operates. Education affects the general population’s ability to work in the business and corporate
sector and it builds up the human capital required for the country to progress. Pragmatic
competence refers to the ability to use a language effectively and to use it in a contextually
appropriate way. It is a determination of how effective people can communicate with each other
using a given language like English. Currently, English is used in almost all parts of the world
and it has become a common official language for many countries. However, it is affected by
some challenges in the education sector that affect the way teaching is done and the way the
learners adapt to its use. Pragmatic competence focuses on the use of a second language
appropriately, such that the other person can understand the things that the person says.
Pragmatic competence in China is an effective way of embracing English as a second language.
Analysis of Pragmatic Competence
The world today has become like a village due to the increased globalization. The trend
has made pragmatic competence even more applicable and useful in the global situation, where
English is one of the common languages used. China is one of the countries that has maintained
its traditions over time. It has many people who are born and brought up speaking in Chinese
only. However, the increased need for international business has made it necessary to focus on
pragmatic competence in teaching English as a second language. The nature of preschool
education in the country allows for flexible scheduling of education programs and this makes it
easy for the schools to have adequate English lessons. Pragmatic competence involves studying
the speaker and hearer meaning of the joint actions, including linguistic and non-linguistic

communications and signs (Taguchi, 2018). It is important to acknowledge that the Chinese
language is highly different in both the spoken and written features to English. Therefore,
pragmatic competence in China is a bit different from other countries.
Theory and Practical Significance of the Topic
The topic is based on several theories and practical reasoning that support the pragmatism
used in the teaching of English in the preschools in China and the rest of the world. The main
theory is pragmatic their which states that the practical ideology and competence should be based
on the practical consequence of accepting it and that the unpractical ideas should be rejected. The
theory suggests that all problems should be addressed using logical ways and methods. The other
theory is the Social Reconstructionism/Critical theory that focuses on the creation of a better
society and better democracies. The topic is significant because it analyzes the practical issues
that affect the education system in China and beyond.
Purpose, Significance, and Rationale
The purpose of the research is to analyze the way pragmatic competence is applied in the
teaching of the English language in China and how this affects the process. The research is based
on the fact that English is a second language for Chinese children and this means that there is a
need to use reliable methods to teach preschool children. The rationale of the research is that it
focuses on an area that has not been exhausted by other researchers and this makes it a valuable
source of information. The area requires a lot of research to ensure that children get the best

Basic Structure, Main Research Methods, and Main Content
The basic structure of the research is that it starts with an executive introduction which is
then followed by the analysis of the essay, the literature review, an analysis of the case studies,
and a conclusion. It also contains a list of references used. The paper includes headings and
subheadings that helps in its flow. It also has a table of contents that shows the sections
contained in it. The main research methods include interviews, questionnaires, and surveys. The
main content is the research outcomes, the case studies, and the general views about the research
The Main Innovation and Value of the Paper
The main innovations are that the paper used modern research methods, used software
like SPSS to analyze the data, and relied on modern methods of communication to collect and
analyze the data. The value of the paper is that it can be applied in making valid decisions in the
education sector and this means that it is a valuable asset for the government and the department
of education. It can also be applied in other parts of the world to analyze and streamline the
education sector. Most of the ideas included in the research are based on practical operations in
education, specifically in the preschools.
Domestic and Foreign Research Trends and Own Opinions
The domestic and foreign trends in research related to this topic indicate that many
researchers focus on the topic and provide adequate information on it. For example, there are
numerous research articles based on the pragmatic theories and the application of the theory in
education. Many domestic and foreign articles indicate the way these theories are applied to
different levels of education. For example, the article by Poulik, Ghorai, and Xin (2020)

discusses the application of the theories in the Taiwan education system. Similar articles present
many ideas that can be applied in China and other countries. The personal opinion is that there is
a need to analyze and understand the way the education system works in different countries and
apply reliable theories and practices to ensure the children get the best out of it. Some of the
countries’ education systems fail to achieve their goals because the leadership in the countries do
not focus on the main issues that matter to the learners.
Statement of the problem
Asia is the largest continent in the world. It is also rich in minerals like oil and has some
of the best business strategies. China is one of the fastest-growing economies in Asia and its
impact can be felt across the world. The use of high-level technology and improved
infrastructure are some of the factors that make China an outstanding country. However, many
challenges affect the education system in the country and this requires the application of
effective measures to ensure the education sector meets its goals. The use of English as a
national language is one of the ways that the country could ensure effective communication
among the Chinese people and the rest of the world. The problem is that pragmatic competence
has not been effected fully in the teaching of English in the country. The country has a large
number of international businesses that require labor from other countries. The poor usage of
English reduces the effectiveness of importing labor from other countries.
Recently, China has attracted many international investors who have opened businesses
in the country. It is necessary to have a reliable common language that can be used in the
management of these businesses. The country has also invested in many other parts of the world
and they require a reliable communication skill to run these businesses. For example, China is in
charge of numerous construction projects in Africa (Zhao, 2017). The use of pragmatic

competence in Chinese preschools could help improve the way the Chinese specialists mingle
with the rest of the world. Therefore, it should be taught from preschool to ensure its success.
The main content of the Paper
Literature Review
The Chinese government supports education in numerous ways and this has helped in
achieving most of the goals of the sector. For example, the government ensures there is the
adequate infrastructure for use in the education programs and that there is adequate labor. Most
of the people in the education sector understand the importance of applying pragmatic
competence in teaching English. There are many schools, both private and public, that offer
education in English and the native languages (Kuang, 2017). The language, however, remains a
challenge to many people in the country. English is the most widely taught foreign language in
China. Children get exposed to it as early as from grades three and four. The country has made
efforts to improve the usage of English by making it a compulsory part of the education system
and mostly in the construction studies (Fang, 2018). The situation has changed over time as
many of the children have adopted the use of English in schools and beyond.
The appropriate use of language is determined by many factors that include the context
and mode of teaching used. The use of pragmatic competence ensures that the learners
understand the forms of linguistic use and the appropriateness of their usage. In other words, it
focuses on ensuring that the learners understand how to use the language in the appropriate
context and without making errors that affect the communication patterns. English has become
an important part of the world today and there is a need to have the necessary knowledge to
apply it in social and formal interactions. According to Taguchi (2018), the knowledge about a
language and how to use that knowledge in communication is a reliable application of pragmatic

competence. The fact that most of the schools in China use the traditional ways of teaching as a
way of preserving their culture affects the use of English in social contexts. The analysis done by
Chen (2017) shows that the pragmatic competence of English learners in China is poor. The
situation is attributed to the limited usage of the English language in the social interactions,
which in turn leads to low exposure of the students to the language.
Proficiency in the use of the English language is not a guarantee for proficiency in
English. The learners need to understand the appropriate application of different features of the
language in communication. Pragmatic competence is expected to ensure this is achieved.
However, society and the government have not invested enough effort to achieve this goal. One
challenge that affects pragmatic competence in china is speech communities. A speech
community refers to a group of people speaking a similar language and who shares similar words
and grammar rules. These people may be professionals working together, members of a
community or students in the same school, or pursuing a certain career. The language community
may use a certain pattern of social interaction in their language and the use of modern technology
like social media sites. The Cantonese speech community refers to a variety of Chinese spoken in
the city of Guangzhou and the neighboring areas in South Eastern China (Xu, 2016). It is a
traditional prestige variety and a form of Yue Chinese which is a subgroup of Chinese.
Cantonese is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong and Macau and it’s spoken by
overseas Chinese in South East Asia. The language is vital and cannot be separated from the
cultural identity of its native speakers across South East China and overseas community.
Few Cantonese speakers know its written vocabulary and difference in sentence structure
exists between it and Mandarin. The language is used for instructions together with English in
schools. English speech community in China is facing radical changes due to various factors.

Demographic change and the increase in the population in China have changed the way of
speaking English. The changes are experienced in the phonetic level which deals with sounds
(Kohn, Hattesohl & Stithem, 2016). Young people are exhibiting a prominent distinct liberal
sound. The youths who don’t speak Chinese are speaking English with small Chinese features
like rhythm or staccato syllables with different vowel pronunciations. China is a community with
diverse languages, the change experienced in the English language is seen as a sign of a vibrant
and lively community existed. The challenge is that such changes affect the way pragmatic
competence is applied.
The use of pragmatic competence helps the Chinese people to settle in many other parts f
the world and achieve their dreams. One of the attractive places in the United States, where
English is the common language for all citizens. The country offers many opportunities for better
employment, education, health, and other aspects. However, the high rate of immigrants can be a
challenge to most of the locals and the government. The country has implemented many laws
and regulations in the past intending to regulate the number of people who move into the
country. Some of these laws have been effective but some have attracted criticism due to their
target on certain ethnic groups.
Case Study of how Pragmatic Competence Affects Chinese People Abroad
In the 1870s, many Chinese people immigrated to the United States and most of them
settled in California and Chicago. By 1882, the government passed the Chinese Exclusion Act
that regulated the immigration of the Chinese people into the country (Moore 43). However, the
law was seen as a mere target to one ethnic group. The law did not succeed in stopping the
immigration of the Chinese people. As the economy grew, more of the Chinese people moved
into the US in search of jobs and a better life. In Chicago, the high number of Chinese people led

to many changes in the local culture and administration. During the industrialization era, they
contributed immensely to the growth of industries by providing labor. They also influenced
social life like meals, whereby Chinese foods and restaurants have become a common treasure
for the people of Chicago. The Chinese community has also affected and influenced the political
structure of the region. The analysis of the areas occupied by the Chinese people also shows
adequate evidence that they have managed to keep their culture alive. It is evident even in the
type of buildings they build and the festivals they hold. The Chinese people in Chicago have
changed and adapted over time to fit into the American culture. This research intends to analyze
how the Chinese culture has adapted to Chicago and American culture. It was done through the
observation of the Chicago Chinatown, an area where most of the Chinese people live and their
culture is exhibited all over the place. The research is about the culture, how it has changed over
time, and how that pragmatic competence taught in preschool has affected them.
The analysis of the data collected during the observation provides adequate information
that shows the changes in culture and how the Chinese people have settled and adapted to the
American culture. The observation made in the Chicago Chinatown shows that it is divided into
two; one part of the town is composed of people who cannot speak any English and they are
always involved in the Chinese culture like playing games related to their culture. The other part
is made up of people who have intermingled with the people of Chicago and can communicate in
English comfortably. The observation identified that many Chinese people in Chicago live the
same way they would live in China. They own property, have built houses similar to those in
China, and many other factors that make them feel like they are in China. The other conclusion is
that Chinatown attracts a large number of tourists who visit a unique place. There are many
jewelry stores, grocery stores, restaurants that sell Chinese foods, bakeries, tea shops, and gift

shops that sell many unique items. The pragmatic competence skills taught in their preschool
years could be attributed to their success in the new foreign lands.
The 1906 earthquake affected many people and destroyed most of the buildings in this
Chinatown (Vitiello & Blickenderfer 146). However, since it was rebuilt immediately after the
earthquake, it attracts a large number of people who visit the area regularly. The other conclusion
is that there is still a large number of immigrants who come to Chicago. The Chicago Chinatown
supports the immigrants by providing shelter and teaching them English so that they can easily
get assimilated into the American culture. Some of the people in the area feel isolated from the
rest of the culture in Chicago because of the language barrier. The community centers in the area
help maintain the cohesion and culture in the town. For example, the Pui Tak Center, which was
initially known as the On Leong Merchant Association Building, offers a base for the growth and
maintenance of the Chinese culture to the people in Chinatown. It was also easy to note the role
played by the religious groups in maintaining this culture. For example, the Chinese Christian
Union Church is one of the churches that offer the required support to the local people in matters
of culture, religion, and mostly in the use of English in preschool studies. The church guides
people on the importance of understanding the English language and use it in their social
Further research is required on the rate at which the Chinese communities outside China
use pragmatic competence to promote the English language in their preschools. It should also
focus on how the Chinese culture has changed over time and how this has affected the American
culture of the people near Chinatown. Likely, the Americans living near the town have also
assimilated many Chinese ways of life practices. The research was affected by several
limitations; one of them is the scarcity of resources. Time and money were inadequate and some

of the research targets were reduced. For example, it was difficult to visit all parts of the town
and interview more people and it was hard to print questionnaires for use in the research. The
other limitation is the language barrier. Most of the Chinese people may not be competent in
English. With such a challenge in communication, it was difficult to access all the data required
for the research. The other limitation was the cultural difference and the inaccessibility of some
of the target places.
Technology and its Impacts on Pragmatic Competence in Preschool English Teaching
China is one of the countries in the world that has embraced many types of education in
almost all sectors. The technology used in the country affects education in many ways. Fine arts
and drawing are largely dependent on traditional methods of education and this may not be easy
to integrate into modern technology. Children in fine arts and drawing classes use their
imagination to innovate the ideas they require in the classwork. The analysis of the different
technologies used in China shows that they have affected the performance and application of fine
arts and drawing. One of the parts of technology that affects the education system most is social
media. Most people today can access social media and this affects the way children concentrate
on their studies. Technology has reduced the challenges that affected education delivery but it
has also reduced the effectiveness and retention of the skills taught.
Technology can be applied in many ways in English education. One of them is through
the delivery of materials to the learners. For example, teachers can use projectors and computers
to share their knowledge and education with learners. The other one is that it has increased
access to information (Raja & Nagasubramani, 2018). Technology increases the ease with which
learners can get data from outside their localities. For example, Google provides learners with a
lot of information about almost everything and this is usually incorrect English. It helps the

learners to practice how to use the language appropriately. However, for preschool learners, the
use of technology could help listen to clips that teach them how to pronounce and speak fluently
in English. The other one is that technology makes it easier to communicate. Learners used to
rely on one-on-one communication in the past with their teachers. However, nowadays learners
and communicate with their teachers via online methods like video conferencing. The other one
is that it increases the range of ideas that education should cover. For example, when teaching
arts and drawing, the teacher has to include the methods that are related to modern technology.
For example, computers can be used to improve the way English is learned. Technology also
affects the delivery of patterns in education (Herold, 2016). Teachers can use modern methods to
deliver to the learners. It also helps in the assessment and evaluation of the learners (Lai &
Bower, 2019). Some of the methods that teachers use in evaluation and assessment are based on
evidence from technology-based information.
Critique of the Use of Technology to Promote Pragmatic Competence in English Education
in China
Apart from the numerous advantages of using technology in education, there are many
challenges that China has experienced in the education system. Technology has increased the
negative exposure that Chinese children have (Cloete, 2019). Most of the children have access to
materials like games and social media that distract their learning process. The learning and
retention rate in arts and drawing, for instance, has reduced over time due to the increased usage
of technology-based gadgets. The focus of the learning process is to increase the knowledge of
the learners. However, some of the technologies applied have led to a reduction in the general
knowledge of the students. According to Tian and Liu (2019), the education sector is expected to
be a common good for all. However, the increased use of technology has sidelined some of the

learners who do not have access to the technology applied. The access is limited by poverty to
some extent.
Some parts of China are composed of people who live under the poverty line and it is
hard for them to access the technology used in education. According to a survey done in 2010,
China has many poor people and mostly in rural areas (Yang & Mukhopadhaya, 2017). The high
poverty in some rural parts affects education and the access they have to the relevant materials
and techniques that could help them achieve their goals. The technology could excite students
and increase their morale to participate in classwork. However, it could also be a distraction that
reduces the focus they have in classes. The Chinese education system should invest more in
tailoring the technology used in the English education sector to ensure that it suits the age of the
children and the goals of the schools. For example, for those taking courses in fine arts,
pragmatic competence can be used to expose the learners to the world-level English language. It
can also be used to prepare learners for future careers.
As mentioned above, technology is applied in almost all sectors and mostly in the
production sector. The use of technology in the education system in China prepares the learners
to fit in future careers. It is evident from the analysis of the global education systems that most of
the learners who have technology skills are better in their work than those who are not
(Barabasch & Cattaneo, 2019). It is also evident that the learners have preferences for the
technology they find useful. The current education system in China does not leave much room
for the learners to choose the technology to be applied in their learning process. The stakeholders
should consider the preferences that learners have and integrate them with what is assumed to be
effective and useful. Freedom to choose could trigger spontaneous learning.

Learners in fine arts and drawing explore new ways of expressing their ideas through drawings
and other skills. Some of those ideas are amplified spontaneously by the use of educational
technology. Technology triggers innovative ways of sharing the knowledge and ideas that
learners have. However, in China’s education system, this has not been achieved because of the
poor investment strategies that the government has employed. One of the evident indicators of
this poor management of English education is the high inequality in the sector (Luo, Guo, & Shi,
2018). The poor people in the country have limited resources that can be spared to update the
technology used in education. Some of the people in poor regions do not even have access to the
internet. Spontaneous reading is only possible when the learners have access to technology and
have knowledge about its usage. The major critique in this issue is that the government has not
achieved the poverty eradication goals over the years. It is not easy for the learners to achieve
their goals in education when they have no access to modern technology.
The critique against the Government’s use of Pragmatic Competence in Preschools
The Chinese government has been criticized because of its reluctance in dealing with the
challenges that face the English education sector. According to Rao and Ye (2016), there is a
difference between the quality of education in rural areas and the urban areas. The difference
affects the way people apply the knowledge they learn in schools. A special concern is that most
people fail to gain the required knowledge in the use of the English language. The critique is
based on the failures of the government to support the education centers that offer informal
education and skills and the failure to invest adequately in the success of the existing schools.
The government has also failed to support the cultural advancements that could help improve
education. Pragmatic competence is one of how the government could help the learners integrate
their English education into the modern world (Hayhoe & Bastid, 2017). The use of pragmatic

competence in preschools is sometimes misunderstood and its impacts are overestimated. The
government should determine the type of technology that should be used to help schools become
more attractive and productive and to support the use of English in schools.
The critique paper above is related to the education sector, the fine arts, and teaching
English in preschools in many ways. One of them is that it explains the way technology affects
education in general and how it affects the imagination and creativity of the learners. It also
explains the failures of the government to implement the right and most relevant technology in
education. The learners in arts and drawing should be granted the technology that allows them to
increase their imagination and creativity as well as any technology that helps them achieve their
goals on time. The critique is also relevant to the fine arts and drawing because it highlights
some of the possible ways that technology can help improve education. Apart from China, the
same challenge is experienced in many parts of the world today.
Pragmatic competence has reduced the challenges that affected education delivery in the
English language but it has also reduced the effectiveness and retention of the skills taught. The
schools around China are adjusting to the use of technology. It has led to better communication,
assessment, evaluation, and delivery among other benefits. However, it has also caused a
distraction, inequality, and low performance in some areas of the country. The poor residents in
rural areas are disadvantaged because they do not have access to technology. The government
has not employed adequate measures to ensure all learners have access to the relevant
educational technology. Most of the ideas highlighted above are based on evidence from relevant
sources in and outside China. The future critique should focus on the efforts of the schools,
learners, and parents on making use of the available technology to improve their English
education and to support the pragmatic competence in schools. It should also analyze the

solutions that could be applied to improve the situation and mitigate the negative impacts of
technology on fine arts and drawing and other education specialties.
Research Methods
The research methods used in the study include interviews, analysis of secondary sources
and case studies, and the use of questionnaires. Most of the information was collected through
surveys in the education sector, interviews, and questionnaires that were distributed online. The
questionnaires included relevant questions that were based on the desired information and they
were distributed to the target population. The filled ones were then collected and analyzed. The
use of surveys helped determine how the preschools operated in China while interviews with the
stakeholders helped in getting first-hand information about the preschools in China and other
countries. The research methods were appropriate and relevant because they helped in getting the
data required to decide on the effectiveness of the education methods in china.
Completion Deadline and Main Measures Taken
The completion deadline for the project was one month and the main measures taken include
management of the resources, reducing wastage of time and money, and taking measures to
ensure the accuracy of the exercise. For example, all questionnaires were distributed to adults
who have been in the education sector for at least three years in China. The data collected was
also analyzed using SPSS to ensure its accuracy and reliability. The data was also collected using
both English and Chinese languages to ensure no language barriers affected the data collection
process. The deadline and the above measures helped to ensure that the project is completed on
time and that the data collected is reliable.

Applying Philosophy in Pragmatic Competence in China Preschools
Preschool education is highly dependent on the understanding that the teachers have
about the learners. In other words, the teacher should understand how the learners think ad how
to use that to ensure they understand the things they are taught in the class. The use of
philosophy helps the teachers to understand their students and this makes it easy for them to
choose the pragmatic competence measure they could use in the preschool lessons to ensure that
learners get the best out of the English lessons. The philosophy is based on the research that
shows how students think and the factors that affect their reasoning.
Overview of the Philosophies
The philosophy that a teacher applies in their work is critical in deciding how the learning
session takes place. The different philosophical perspectives in education help identify the
techniques that the teacher applies and how the classroom environment is controlled. One of the
perspectives is the perennialism that focuses on ensuring that the students acquire the important
ideas of Western civilization. The philosophy can be used to solve problems in any era and this
makes it timeless. It states that students should be equipped with the fundamental issues that do
not change. The focus is that the fundamental parts of life and the world do not change. It
focuses on the development of the students’ intellectual capacity, growth in their disciplines, and
other parts of the western civilization (Almahdaly, 2017). The perspective can be used to
promote a positive view of pragmatic competence in English in the country.
The other perspective is progressivism, and it states that education should focus on the
development of the child in all perspectives, and not just the teacher or the contents of the
curriculum. Active experimentation is proposed as one of the ways that the skills in the child
should be tested. Essential knowledge should be active and not passive. The physical and cultural

context should be used by the learner to solve the problems that affect them and there should be a
chance for the learners to solve the problem in their environment without any assistance. The
philosophy also requires that the questions and experiences of the students should be used to
design the curriculum. It emphasizes the process through which the students get to know how to
solve problems (Malitowska, 2016). The analysis shows that philosophy cannot be applied in all
situations. The philosophy does not give a good experience for the students to change their way
of thinking and adopt new ways of thinking and so it may not be very helpful in the application
of pragmatic competence in preschools in China.
The other one considered was the Social Reconstructionism/Critical theory that focuses
on the creation of a better society and better democracies in the world. It was developed after the
atrocities and unfair occurrences after World War II and it was meant to change the way students
view their experiences in school. The main focus of education under this philosophy is to create
a strong social structure and to solve challenges through technology and democracy. The
philosophy states that the world should be changed to ensure there is a fair dealing among people
and that there is a smooth flow of events. It focuses on the experiences of the students and how
to deal with social and human issues like hunger, violence, terrorism, and inflation among others
(White, 2016). T…

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