SOLUTION: SEU Digitization and Information in the Construction Industry Discussion

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE
In this assignment, all the literature available on the different approaches to the concept of your
research is explicitly reviewed. Here you can write the outline or plan of your review like in how
many sections and what you are discussing in each section.
Sample Main Heading 1 (as per your topic)
This is a sample. Replace with your own.
Social entrepreneurship in common parlance refers to entrepreneurial activity with an embedded
social purpose. Although, entrepreneurial activities with a social concern can be traced back in the
history but the social entrepreneurship as an innovative model for social problem solving has
recently emerged (Robinson et al., 2009; Mair & Marti, 2006; Peredo & McLean, 2006; Dees et
al., 2002; Chell, 2007). Thus, social entrepreneurship mainly stands for endeavors which primarily
focus over social value creation and thus social mission remains central to every social
entrepreneurship activity.
The social entrepreneurship has become a global phenomenon, impacting societies by catalyzing
social transformations for societal wellbeing. The phenomenon mainly addresses the basic needs
of human society which were neglected in the race for mainstream development. As such, the
phenomenon can occur in any society and often such local social entrepreneurship initiatives have
the potential for scale up and replication at the global level. E-g: Microfinance of Bangladesh.
Sample Main Heading 2(as per your topic)
This is a sample. Replace with your own.
As described above, the idea of social enterprise is certainly not new as businesses with social
missions can be traced back in the nineteenth century. Thus, the practice of social enterprise may
well be ahead of the theory as in other areas of social action (Sarah et al., 2002).
Sample Main Heading 3(as per your topic)
This is a sample. Replace with your own.
As described above, the idea of social enterprise is certainly not new as businesses with social
missions can be traced back in the nineteenth century. Thus, the practice of social enterprise may
well be ahead of the theory as in other areas of social action (Sarah et al., 2002).
References (in APA format)
Chapter 2
THE RESEARCH PROCESS: AN OVERVIEW
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-1
Learning Objectives
Understand …
 The standards of good research.
 What is happening within each stage of the
research process.
 Research process pitfalls and their solutions.
 Ethical issues at each stage in the process.
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-2
Actions that Deliver Effective Research
Clearly defined purpose
Detailed research process
Thoroughly planned design
High ethical standards
Adequate analysis
Limitations revealed
Unambiguous presentation
Insights justified
Conclusions justified
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-3
Research Process
Stage 1: Clarify the
Research
Question
Stage 2: Design the
Research
Stage 3: Collect & Prepare
the Data
Stage 4: Analyze &
Interpret the Data
Stage 5: Report Insights &
Recommendations
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-4
Research Process
Stage 1: Clarify the
Research
Question
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-5
Research Process
Stage 2: Design the
Research
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-6
Stage 2: Design the Research
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-7
Stage 2: Design the Research
Research
Design
The
Research
Project
Sampling
Design
Instrument
Development &
Pilot Testing
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-8
Research Process
Stage 3: Collect & Prepare
the Data
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-9
Stage 3:
Data Collection, Preparation, Examination
Collect the data
Deal with data errors/omissions
Reduce data to manageable size
Develop summaries
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-10
Data Characteristics
Abstractness
Verifiability
Elusiveness
Closeness
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-11
Data Collection Protocols
Consistency =
verifiable data.
Consistency =
truthfulness.
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-12
Data Types
Primary
Secondary
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-13
Data Levels & Characteristics
Nominal
Classification
Ordinal
Order
Interval
Equal distance
Ratio
Natural Origin
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-14
Research Process
Stage 4: Analyze &
Interpret the Data
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-15
Steps in Data Analysis and Interpretation
Refine Preliminary Analysis Plan
Look for Patterns
Apply Statistical Techniques
Support or Refute Hypotheses
Develop Insights &
Recommendations
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-16
Research Process
Stage 5: Report Insights &
Recommendations
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-17
Factors that Influence
Perspective
Method
Research
Report
Content
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Audience
1-18
Research Project Time Frame
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-19
Research Project Time Frame
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-20
Research Process Pitfalls to Avoid
Ill-defined Management Problem
Unresearchable Questions
Manager’s Hidden Agendas
Researcher Inexperience
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-21
Research Process Problems to Avoid
Overembracing Data Analytics
Favored-Technique Syndrome
Researcher Inexperience
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-22
Ethical Issues in Research Process
Deception
Bias
Privacy
Respect
Notice
Security
Choice
Access
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-23
Research Process
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-24
Key Terms
• Case
• Ordinal data
• Census
• Primary data
• Dashboard
• Ratio data
• Data
• Recommendations
• Data analysis
• Research design
• Findings
• Research process
• Insights
• Research question(s)
• Interval data
• Sample
• Key Performance Indicator
• Secondary Data
• Management dilemma
• Target population
• Nominal data
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-25
Chapter 3
STAGE 1: CLARIFY THE RESEARCH QUESTION
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3-1
Learning Objectives
Understand . . .
 The question hierarchy.
 The purposes and process of exploration.
 How internal and external exploration differ.
 The process and goal of research valuation.
 The process and justification needed to budget
for research.
 Ethical issues at this stage of the process.
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3-2
Tasks Associated with Stage 1
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3-3
The Management-Research Question
Hierarchy
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3-4
Management Questions
Evaluation of Solutions
Troubleshooting
TYPES
Control
Choice of purpose or objectives
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3-5
Types of Management Questions
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3-6
Formulating
the Research
Question
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3-7
Tasks of Exploration
Understand management dilemma,
management problem and research question
Discover how others have addressed
or solved similar problems.
Establish priorities for addressing management
dilemmas or management problems.
Identify action options and develop hypotheses.
Gather background information to
refine research question.
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3-8
Tasks of Exploration (cont.)
Identify information to
formulate investigative questions.
Develop operational definitions for
concepts, constructs, variables.
Provide evidence for justifying
and budging research
Set foundation for final research design.
Identify sources for sample frames
& measurement questions.
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3-9
Desired Outcomes of Exploration
Establish range and scope of possible
management decisions
Establish major dimensions
of research task
Define a set of subsidiary questions
that can guide research design
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3-10
Desired Outcomes of Exploration (cont.)
Develop hypotheses about possible
causes of management dilemma
Learn which hypotheses
can be safely ignored
Conclude additional research is
not needed or not feasible
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3-11
Exploration Strategy
What
information
sources
should be
used?
+
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
What methods
will be used to
extract
information
from these
sources?
3-12
Exploration Strategy Methods
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3-13
Exploration
Strategy
Sources
Copyight © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill ompanies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3-14
Levels of Published & Digital Sources
Primary
Sources:
Memos
Letters
Interviews
Speeches
Laws
Internal records
Secondary
Sources:
Encyclopedias
Textbooks
Handbooks
Magazines
Newspapers
Newscasts
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Tertiary
Sources:
Indexes
Bibliographies
Internet
search engines
3-15
Primary Internal Sources


Many company
reward programs
collect transaction
data made via storeowned credit
programs.
Data can reveal the
likely success of a
promotion or the
sales lift effect of a
price incentive.
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3-16
Conduct a Literature Search
Define management dilemma
Consult books for relevant terms
Use terms to search
Locate/review secondary sources
Evaluate value of each source and content
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3-17
Types of Secondary Sources
Indexes/
Bibliographies
Directories
Dictionaries
TYPES
Handbooks
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Encyclopedias
3-18
Evaluate Published & Digital Sources
Purpose
Scope
Format
Evaluation
Factors
Audience
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Authority
3-19
Evaluating Internal Sources
Compatibility
Timelessness
Recentness
Quality
Author’s Experience
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3-20
Fine-Tuning the Research Question
Operationally define variables
Formulate levels of research questions
Set the scope of the study
Evaluate hypotheses.
Determine necessary evidence
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3-21
Value the
Research
Research value is
the “ difference
between the result
of decisions made
with [new]
information and the
result that would be
made without it.”
Copyight © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill ompanies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3-22
Value the Research
Option Analysis
Decision variables
Decision Rule
Estimate the budget
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3-23
Budget the Research
TASK
BUDGET
FUNCTIONAL
AREA
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3-24
Advocate for Research



Every research
project needs an
advocate.
The process for
obtaining funding is
competitive among
managers.
The best crafted
argument should, but
doesn’t always, win
approval.
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3-25
Key Terms















Bibliography
Data warehouse
Decision rule
Decision variable
Dictionary
Directory
Encyclopedia
Expert interview
Exploration
Exploration Strategy
Handbook
Index
Investigative questions
Literature search
Management dilemma
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
 Management question
 Management-research question






hierarhy
Measurement questions
Option Analysis
Primary sources
Research questions
Secondary sources
Source evaluation





Purpose
Scope
Authority
Audience
Format
 Tertiary sources
3-26
Chapter 4
STAGE 2: RESEARCH DESIGN: AN OVERVIEW
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
4-1
Learning Objectives
Understand . . .
 The tasks that comprise research design.
 The types of variable relationships.
 The major descriptors of research designs.
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
4-2
What Is Research Design?
Blueprint
Plan
Guide
Framework
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
4-3
Research Design Essentials
Time-based plan
Based on Research
Questions
Guide for selecting sources
of information & methods
Framework for specifying
relationships among variables
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
4-4
Design
the
Research
Copyight © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill ompanies, Inc. All rights reserved.
4-5
Exploratory Study
 Loose structure
 Expand
understanding of
dilemma
 Provide insight on
management
problem
 Define research
question/hypotheses
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
4-6
Some Exploratory Study Methods
Participant observation
Film, photographs
Projective techniques
Case studies
Ethnography
Expert interviews
Document analysis
Proxemics and Kinesics
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
4-7
Formal Study
Formal Study
 Begins with
hypotheses/research
questions
 Precise procedures
for data collection &
analysis
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
4-8
Some Formal Study Methods
 Self administered
surveys
 Survey via personal
interview
 Telephone surveys
 True experiments
 Pre-experiments
 Quasi-experiments
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
4-9
Sampling Design
Census
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sample
4-10
Data Collection Design: The Method
Monitoring
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Communication
4-11
Other Dimensions of Data Collection Design
Participant’s
Awareness
Time
Dimension
Research
Environment
Objective of the
Study
Ability to
Manipulate
Variables
Descriptors
Topical Scope
Complexity of
Design
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Measurement
Emphasis
4-12
Objective of the Study
Reporting
Casual Explanatory
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Descriptive
Causal Predictive
4-13
Reporting Study – Focus on Past
Who?
How much?
What?
When?
Where?
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
4-14
Descriptive Study – Focus on Now
Who?
How much?
What?
When?
Where?
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
4-15
Descriptive Studies
Descriptions of population
characteristics
Estimates of frequency of
characteristics
Discovery of associations
among variables
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
4-16
Causal Studies
Casual Explanatory
Causal Predictive
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
4-17
Other Dimensions of Data Collection Design
Participant’s
Awareness
Time
Dimension
Research
Environment
Objective of the
Study
Ability to
Manipulate
Variables
Descriptors
Topical Scope
Complexity of
Design
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Measurement
Emphasis
4-18
Ability to Manipulate Variables
Ex Post Facto Study
Experiment
 After-the-fact report
 Study involving the
on what happened to
the measured
variable
 No manipulation
possible
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
manipulation or
control of one or
more variables to
determine the effect
on another variable
4-19
Other Dimensions of Data Collection Design
Participant’s
Awareness
Time
Dimension
Research
Environment
Objective of the
Study
Descriptors
Complexity of
Design
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ability to
Manipulate
Variables
Topical Scope
Measurement
Emphasis
4-20
Topical Scope
Statistical
Study
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Case
Study
4-21
Topical Scope
Statistical Study
 Breadth
 Population
inferences
 Quantitative
 Generalizable
findings
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Case Study
 Depth
 Detail
 Qualitative
 Multiple sources of
information
4-22
Other Dimensions of Data Collection Design
Participant’s
Awareness
Time
Dimension
Research
Environment
Objective of the
Study
Descriptors
Complexity of
Design
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ability to
Manipulate
Variables
Topical Socpe
Measurement
Emphasis
4-23
Measurement Emphasis
Qualitative
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Quantitative
4-24
Other Dimensions of Data Collection Design
Participant’s
Awareness
Time
Dimension
Research
Environment
Objective of the
Study
Descriptors
Complexity of
Design
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ability to
Manipulate
Variables
Topical Socpe
Measurement
Emphasis
4-25
Measurement Emphasis
Single Methodology
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Multiple Methodology
4-26
Other Dimensions of Data Collection Design
Participant’s
Awareness
Time
Dimension
Research
Environment
Objective of the
Study
Descriptors
Complexity of
Design
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ability to
Manipulate
Variables
Topical Socpe
Measurement
Emphasis
4-27
Research Environment
Field conditions
Lab conditions
Simulations
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
4-28
Other Dimensions of Data Collection Design
Participant’s
Awareness
Time
Dimension
Research
Environment
Objective of the
Study
Descriptors
Complexity of
Design
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ability to
Manipulate
Variables
Topical Socpe
Measurement
Emphasis
4-29
Time Dimension
Cross-sectional
Longitudinal
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
4-30
Other Dimensions of Data Collection Design
Participant’s
Awareness
Time
Dimension
Research
Environment
Objective of the
Study
Descriptors
Complexity of
Design
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, …
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