SOLUTION: SEU Observation and The Research Processes Amazon Kindle Case Study

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Chapter 7
STAGE 2; DATA COLLECTION DESIGN
OBSERVATION STUDIES
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
7-1
Learning Objectives
Understand . . .
 When observation studies are most useful.
 The distinctions between monitoring nonbehavioral and




behavioral activities.
The strengths of the observation approach in research
design.
The weaknesses of the observation approach in research
design.
The three perspectives from which the observer–
participant relationship may be viewed in observation
studies.
The various designs of observation studies.
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
7-2
Observation
and the
Research
Process
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7-3
Factors Influencing Research Design
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7-4
Event Sampling
If event/act occurs
Duration of event
Antecedents of event
Consequences of event
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7-5
Time Sampling
Time-Point Sample
Continuous Real-time Sample
Time-Interval Sample
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7-6
Content of Observation
Fact
Inference

Introduction/identification of
salesperson and customer.

Credibility of salesperson. Qualified status of
customer.

Time and day of week.

Convenience for the customer. Welcoming attitude
of the customer

Product presented.

Customer interest in product.

Selling points presented per product.

Customer acceptance of selling points of product.

Number of customer objections raised
per product.

Customer concerns about features and benefits.

Salesperson’s rebuttal of objection.

Effectiveness of salesperson’s rebuttal attempts.

Salesperson’s attempt to restore
controls.


Effectiveness of salesperson’s control attempt.
Consequences for customer who prefers
interaction.

Length of interview.

Customer’s/salesperson’s degree of enthusiasm for
the interview.

Environmental factors interfering with
the interview.

Level of distraction for the customer.

Customer purchase decision.

General evaluation of sale presentation skill.
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
7-7
Selecting an
Observation
Data Collection
Approach
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7-8
Data Collection via Observation
Watching
Listening
Touching
Smelling
Reading
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7-9
Simple Observation
Unstructured
Not standardized
Anecdotal
Fact and Inference
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7-10
Systematic Observation
Standardized Protocols
Properly controlled
Consistently dependable
Accurate account of events
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7-11
Systematic Observation: Protocols
Structured
Checklist
Trained
observers
Standardized
Protocols
Encoding
data
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Recording
Schedule
7-12
Selecting an
Observation
Data
Collection
Approach:
Behavioral
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7-13
Selecting an Observation Data
Collection Approach: Behavioral
Behavioral
 Nonverbal
 Linguistic
 Extralinguistic
 Spatial
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7-14
Some Mechanical/Digital Observation Tools
Video camera
Audio Recorder
Galvanometer
Eye Camera/Pupilometer
Tachistoscope
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7-15
Observer-Participant Relationship
Direct vs. indirect
Open vs. Concealed
Participant vs Nonparticipant
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7-16
Linguistic Observation
What Content
How Much Content
How Delivered
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7-17
Extralinguistic Observation
Vocal
Temporal
Interaction
Verbal Stylistic
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18
7-18
Some Studies of Spatial Relationships
How a person relates
physically to others.
How people organize
their environment
How salesperson organizes
his sales territory calls
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
7-19
Selecting an Observation Data Collection
Approach: Nonbehavioral
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7-20
Selecting an Observation Data Collection
Approach: Nonbehavioral
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7-21
Nonbehavioral Observation
Record
Analysis
Physical Condition
Analysis
Physical Process
Analysis
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7-22
Flowchart: Observation Checklist Creation
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7-23
Desired Characteristics for Observers
Experience
Concentration
Detail-oriented
Unobtrusive
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7-24
Errors Introduced by Observers
Halo Effect
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Observer Drift
7-25
Evaluation of Observation
Strengths
Weaknesses
 Capturing nformation that
 Obtaining Motivation




is otherwise unavailable
Avoiding participant
filtering/ forgetting
Securing environmental
context
Optimizing naturalness
Reducing obtrusiveness
 Long periods of





Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
concentration
Higher expenses
Lower reliability of
inferences
Quantifying data
Keeping large records
Knowledge of cognitive
processes
7-26
Ethical Issues and Their Solutions
No Prior Consent
Right of Privacy
Right to Quality
Projection to
Target Population
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7-27
Ethical Issues and Their Solutions
Debriefing
Checklist Pretesting
Observer Training
Protocol Pretesting
Observer Supervision
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7-28
Key Terms
 Concealment
 Event sampling
 Halo effect
 Memory Decay
 Observation




 Observation

checklist
 Observer drift
 Physical condition
analysis

Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.




Behavioral
Direct
Extralinguistic
Indirect
Linguistic
Nonverbal
Participant
Simple
Spatial
Systematic
7-29
Key Terms
 Physical traces
 Process (activity) analysis
 Reactivity response
 Record analysis
 Selective Filtering
 Spatial Relationships
 Time sampling
 Unobtrusive measures
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
7-30

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