SOLUTION: SLU Correctional Leadership Correctional Facilities & Employee Management Essay

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U.S. Department of Justice
National Institute of Corrections
Correctional Leadership
Competencies for
the 21st Century
Manager and
Super visor Levels
U.S. Department of Justice
National Institute of Corrections
320 First Street, NW
Washington, DC 20534
Morris L. Thigpen
Director
Larry Solomon
Deputy Director
Robert M. Brown, Jr.
Chief, Academy Division
John Eggers, Ph.D.
Project Manager
Dee Halley
Project Manager
National Institute of Corrections
World Wide Web Site
http://www.nicic.org
Correctional Leadership Competencies
for the 21st Century:
Manager and Supervisor Levels
Nancy M. Campbell
Campbell Consulting
December 2006
NIC Accession Number 020475
This publication was prepared under cooperative agreement 02A18GIV4 from the National Institute of Corrections, U.S.
Department of Justice. Points of view stated in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent
the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
© Campbell Consulting, Inc.
The National Institute of Corrections reserves the right to reproduce, publish, or otherwise use and to authorize
others to reproduce or use all or any part of the copyrighted material contained in this publication.
Foreword
Given the increasing number and diversity of offenders in the nation’s correctional institutions, the challenging responsibilities being placed on correctional
agencies and organizations, and the complexity of the social, political, and legal
climate in which they operate, it is now more vital than ever for correctional
agencies/organizations to identify and train effective leaders at all levels of management, from the frontline supervisor to the head of a correctional system. To
this end, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) and its Academy Division
asked, “What are the skills and attributes of an effective correctional leader and
how can they be developed?”
In response, NIC and the Academy Division developed the Core Competencies
Project. This project called on the expertise of a number of respected professionals in the leadership field to identify the qualities needed by effective leaders across a wide range of correctional agencies/organizations. After defining
four levels of correctional leaders and developing managerial profiles for each
level based on key areas of responsibility, the project identified core competencies for each level through focus groups and surveys of correctional leaders,
consultation with experts in the correctional field, and comparison with other
fields. Then, for each competency, the project developed a knowledge base to
help correctional leaders at each level understand the competency better and
identified a set of key skills and behaviors related to the competency.
This publication, Correctional Leadership Competencies for the 21st Century:
Manager and Supervisor Levels, and its companion document, Correctional
Leadership Competencies for the 21st Century: Executives and Senior-Level
Leaders, represent the culmination of that process. The core competencies presented for managers and supervisors emphasize not only the value of capabilities such as oral and written communication, strategic thinking, program
planning and performance assessment, managing change, problem solving and
decisionmaking, and a knowledge of the criminal justice system, but also skills
such as interpersonal relationships, motivating others, developing direct reports,
managing conflict, initiating collaboration, and team building and attributes of
character that correctional leaders need, including a strong sense of ethics and
values. These competencies provide correctional agencies/organizations with
tools for identifying and training current and future leaders who can embody
these capabilities and attributes. Also, they offer correctional professionals
guidelines for strengthening and cultivating their own personal growth and
development.
iii
In publishing these documents, NIC hopes to provide a tool for refining its leadership training programs and for helping correctional agencies/organizations of
all sizes identify the most appropriate candidates for leadership training.
Correctional agencies/organizations will be able to use the competencies identified in these documents to improve their recruitment and selection processes, in
the placement and retention of current employees, in succession planning for
leadership positions, and in staff development. Finally, individual correctional
professionals can use these competencies to aid in their own personal growth
and development.
Morris L. Thigpen
Director
National Institute of Corrections
iv ❘ Foreword
Acknowledgments From the
National Institute of Corrections
The Core Competencies Project would not have been possible without the collaborative will, dedication, and professionalism of all who contributed to this
project. During its course, many hours were spent debating the merits of leadership, identifying the competencies known to be successful at various levels
of an organization, and struggling with developing a leadership model that
would best serve both the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) and the field
of corrections.
A special thank you is extended to Nancy Campbell for her professional guidance, which helped us to realize our vision of creating a model for leadership
and management development. NIC is indebted to her for the many hours she
spent identifying the elements of this guide and coordinating the many contributions of its authors. We are also indebted to Pat Andrews, Patrick Dobel, Teddi
Edington, George Galazza, Janie Jeffers, Paul Katsampes, Barb Lucey, Marie
Mactavish, Nancy Raynolds, Chase Riveland, David Savage, Chele Shepard,
Donna Stringer, Richard Swanson, Eldon Vail, William Woodward, and Cindi
Yates for the many hours they spent on this project and the expertise they
extended to it.
At NIC, Dee Halley initially moved the project forward before moving on to
greener pastures in our Washington, D.C., office. Her tireless energy and input
are much appreciated. John Eggers has since kept this project safe under his
wing, and to him we are deeply grateful. John spent many hours reviewing the
final version of this guide. Thanks to his determination and expertise, this document has come to fruition.
As the Chief of NIC’s Academy Division, I am deeply grateful to Morris
Thigpen and Larry Solomon. Morris and Larry have fully supported this project
since its inception and have become champions in the art of patience and allowing us to find our own way.
Finally, a heartfelt thank you is extended to Brian Higgins of Lockheed Martin
Information Technology. Brian’s editorial support, sound suggestions, and attention to detail much improved the final version of this document.
Robert M. Brown, Jr.
Chief, Academy Division
National Institute of Corrections
v
Acknowledgments From
the Author
The nature of the correctional environment has changed significantly in recent
years. The technological revolution, globalization, and changing workforce
demographics are just a few of the factors that are influencing and changing
correctional agencies/organizations. The Core Competencies Project—Phase II
attempts to define the skills and abilities needed today and in the future by correctional managers and supervisors.
The core team for the project consisted of Robert Brown, Chief, National
Institute of Corrections (NIC) Academy Division, Marie Mactavish, John
Eggers, and me. Bob Brown sponsored and promoted the project. Dee Halley,
the original project manager, got the project off the ground, introduced it in
many venues, and consistently offered suggestions for refinement and improvement. John Eggers effortlessly picked up the project lead when Dee took an
assignment in Washington, D.C.
This project is grounded in the competency work that Marie Mactavish began
more than 10 years ago. Marie helped to ensure that the development process
for this project was a learning process for all involved. I am thankful to her not
just for her professional support but for her personal support as well.
The authors, all of whom are experts in their fields, have worked with correctional leaders. Marie Mactavish once again demonstrated her expertise in collaboration and team building. She also explores the interpersonal skills needed to
be an effective manager or supervisor and how to manage conflict. Patrick
Dobel brings a pragmatic yet challenging approach to understanding ethics. A
respected author on ethics, Patrick has trained correctional professionals and has
chaired a public-sector ethics board. Barbara Lucey provides useful tips on how
to communicate effectively in both speech and writing, and is joined by Teddi
Edington in developing a practical approach to problem solving and decisionmaking. Cindi Yates provides a useful way for managers and supervisors to
approach the often daunting topic of program planning and performance assessment. And last but not least, William Woodward provides an overview of the
criminal justice system that reminds us how interconnected the system is.
In addition to the core team, a practitioner review team consisting of Janie
Jeffers, David Savage, Donna Stringer, and Eldon Vail kept me honest and on
my toes. Janie, Dave, and Eldon provided a much needed correctional perspective, and Donna provided an overall organizational view. I was particularly
pleased to work again with my former colleagues Dave and Eldon.
vii
Although she was not technically on the core team, as primary editor Teddi
Edington played a central role for all authors, providing sound critiques of our
writing. Nancy Raynolds provided much valued technical editing for this volume.
The project has been an exciting collaboration of a diverse array of correctional
practitioners, NIC staff, academics, and consultants. I have felt privileged to
work with such bright people who are all committed to developing the next
generation of correctional leaders.
Nancy M. Campbell
viii ❘ Acknowledgments From the Author
Contents
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iii
Acknowledgments From the National Institute of Corrections . . . . . . . . . . . . .v
Acknowledgments From the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii
Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxi
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Nancy M. Campbell
The Core Competencies Project: Meeting the Challenge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Developing the Managerial Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Developing the Core Competencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
How To Use the Core Competencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Chapter 1: Managerial Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Nancy M. Campbell
Executive Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Competencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Senior-Level Leader Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Competencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Manager Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Competencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Supervisor Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
ix
Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Competencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Chapter 2: Ethics and Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
J. Patrick Dobel
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Knowledge Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Why Should Correctional Managers and Supervisors
Develop This Competency? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Ethics: A Criminal Justice Perspective for Managers
and Supervisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Foundation of Ethics—Three Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Managerial/Supervisory Ethics: Personal and Institutional Integrity . . . . . .29
Acting With Integrity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Threats to Ethics in the Correctional Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Building an Ethical Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Leadership Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Unethical Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Key Skills and Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Articulating the Basic Values and Virtues of the Correctional Institution
and Agency/Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Creating Strong Support and Accountability for Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
Anticipating and Addressing Predictable Points of
Vulnerability and Ethical Slippage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Appendix 2–1. Focus Matrix for Managers and Supervisors:
Ethics and Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Chapter 3: Interpersonal Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Marie Mactavish
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
x ❘ Contents
Knowledge Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Why Should Correctional Managers and Supervisors
Develop This Competency? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Empathy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Social Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Relationship Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Effective Interpersonal Relationships Through Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Key Skills and Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Empathy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Social Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Relationship Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Effective Interpersonal Relationships Through Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Appendix 3–1. Focus Matrix for Managers and Supervisors:
Interpersonal Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Chapter 4: Oral and Written Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Barbara Lucey
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Knowledge Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Why Should Correctional Supervisors Develop
This Competency? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Fundamentals of Effective Oral Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
Group Communication: Meetings and Presentations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
Written Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Key Skills and Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Fundamentals of Effective Oral Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Group Communication: Meetings and Presentations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Written Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
Appendix 4–1. Focus Matrix for Managers and Supervisors:
Oral and Written Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
Contents ❘ xi
Chapter 5: Motivating Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
Nancy M. Campbell
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …
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