SOLUTION: UCI Chinese Yìlùnwén Writing Composition and Techniques Annotated Bibliography

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(200 points)
For your Annotated Bibliography Entry 1 assignment, you will write a summary section
(descriptive summary) AND a critique section (evaluative summary) for the article
“Intercultural Rhetoric through a Learner Lens. American Students’ Perceptions of Evidence Use
in Chinese Yìlùnwén Writing.”
You should include or consider the following:
• A header in MLA format.
• A full reference to the original article in MLA style.
• In your summary (150-200 words), you should present the purpose of the research and its
topic, the main points of the article, and conclude with a description of the key finding(s)
or conclusion(s). Make sure that all major ideas from your article are mentioned in the
article. All other usual summary guidelines (see, for instance, Summary 1 Assignment
Sheet for our class) apply to the summary section of the annotated bibliography entry too.
• For the critique section (100-150 words), make sure that you pick the most important
points mentioned in the bullet points in the video “Annotated Bibliography – Evaluation”
( and write critical sentences about
what you found. For the general assessment, you may decide to mention some details
about the potential audience of the article and about the credibility of its authors, the
reliability of the research and the findings presented in the article, whether the topic of
the research seems to be relevant and up-to-date, if it’s published in an authoritative
source, etc. In the personal evaluation, you are welcome to discuss how the source can
be important to your upcoming argumentative essay, if you agree or disagree with the
author’s argument, how it relates and compares to the other sources, and/or what gaps it
might leave in the research.
• Make sure to explain the reasons for your general assessments and personal evaluations
of the article which you plan to include in your annotated bibliography entry.
• In your annotated bibliography, you can put your descriptive and evaluative summaries
separately; in such a case, they will follow one after the other (like in the example
provided after the evaluation rubric below). You can also start with some general
assessment of the original article, and then to proceed to the summary and to some other,
more specific general assessments and personal evaluations of the source (like in most of
the examples in our related class handouts).
• Be precise with your language and give details when needed.
Your annotated bibliography entry will be evaluated based on the rubric provided on the
following page (200 points maximum).
Due Time and Date: 11:59 p.m., October 26.
70 pts
70 pts

Accurately presents author’s purpose for the study
Accurately presents findings of the study
Accurately presents key supporting points if needed
Is written in the student’s own words
Length is appropriate (150-200 words)
15 – 12 pts

The author’s purpose for the study is a bit unclear
Findings of the study are a bit unclear or need elaboration
Key supporting points are a bit not clear or need to be added
Needs to be rephrased; does not look like student’s own words
Length is either a bit too long or too short
11- 8 pts

Accurately evaluates quality of the article using the
evaluation criteria from the related video
Clearly states the relevance of the article for the
argumentative essay
Is written in the student’s own words
Length is appropriate (100-150 words)
15 – 12 pts

Needs elaboration on some criteria from the related video
Does not clearly states the relevance of the article for the
argumentative essay
Needs to be well rephrased; does not look like student’s own
Length is either a bit too long or too short
11-8 pts

The criteria from the related video are not applied
The relevance of the article for the argumentative essay
Does not look like student’s own words and/or plagiarized
Length is either a bit too long or too short
7 – 0 pts

The author’s purpose for the study is not clear or mentioned
Finding of the study are not clear or missing.
Key supporting points need to be present for clarity
does not look like student’s own words and/or plagiarized
Length is either a bit too long or too short.
7- 0 pts
30 pts

Organized clearly and coherently
Illustrates how ideas are connected and developed
Effective use of transitions
5 pts

Needs a bit work with organization and coherence
Ideas need to be better connected and developed
Need some work with transitions
4 – 3 pts

Is not organized clearly and coherently
Ideas are not well connected and developed
Transitions are not used
2-0 pts
MLA and
10 pts

Includes a header
Includes a correct full reference citation at the top
Uses Times New Roman, 12 pts.
Overall no issues with MLA formatting
5 pts

Includes a title page
Includes full reference citation at the top
A few issues with MLA formatting, font size and style, and/or
reference citations
4 – 3 pts

Does not include a title page and/or full reference citation
at the top
Many issues with MLA formatting, font size and style,
and/or reference citation
2-0 pts
20 pts

Effective use of different sentence structures
Appropriate use of tense
Grammatical error avoidance
Appropriate academic word choice
Use of verbs that indicate summarizing from a source
Use of verbs that indicate evaluation of a source
5 pts

A few issues with one or two of the following: use of different
sentence structures; use of tense; grammatical error avoidance;
appropriate academic word choice; use of verbs that indicate
summarizing from a source; use of verbs that indicate evaluation
of a source
4 – 3 pts

Sub-score for the Summary section = ______________
Sub-score for the Critique section = ______________
Total score = _______________ out of 200

Many issues with the following: use of different sentence
structures; use of tense; grammatical error avoidance;
appropriate academic word choice; use of verbs that
indicate summarizing from a source; use of verbs that
indicate evaluation of a source
2-0 pts
Reference citation
Baker, Jeremy, Tuch Susanne, and D’Antonio, William. “Religion, Politics, and Issue Polarizing in the United
States Congress, 1959-2013.” Studia Religioligica, vol. 46, no. 4, 2013, pp. 235-250.
This article investigates the existence of a relationship between religion and voting in the United States
Congress. The authors reviewed the results of congressional voting on welfare, defense spending, and tax
cutting between 1969 and 2013. They found that most members of the Democratic Party want to increase taxes
and decrease defense spending in order to fund welfare programs. On the other hand, most Republicans want to
support defense spending while decreasing welfare and taxes. The authors then compared voting between
Descriptive summary
religious members within a party with respect to the party overall and also voting between members of different
parties but the same religion. For example, they analyzed how Republican Catholics vote on defense spending
in comparison to how the Republican Party over all votes on the same issue. Similarly, they then analyzed how
Democratic Catholics vote about defense spending in comparison to the Democratic Party over all. The results
show that Catholic legislators are less likely to support war defense even in the Republican Party. Another result
of the research was that Mainline Protestants support cut taxing even in the Democratic Party. As a result of the
research, the authors conclude that religion is the base for the Republican and Democratic Parties.
The article is trustable and simple. It was recently written by three professors from different universities
Evaluative summary
and different backgrounds, and it made use of their well-known and reliable arguments with appropriate
statistical analysis. Therefore, the article does not appear to be biased or inclined towards any specific political
party or religion. Since one of my other sources discusses how religion influences political participation and
presidential elections, this article offers another perspective on this topic by analyzing how religion can be
influenced by political decisions. One of the limitations of this article, however, is that the authors did not take
into consideration how these decisions might not appear to conflict with Islamic countries, or whether Jews
might support bills that do not weaken the political or economic position of Israel, and so forth. Nevertheless, I
am planning to refer to the results of the research described in the article in my argumentative essay when
discussing different social and political factors which may have certain impact on religion. This should help me
strengthen my argument about the close connection between religion and different “external” factors, including
some political actions and the processes taking place in modern human society.
Journal of Second Language Writing 40 (2018) 1–11
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Journal of Second Language Writing
journal homepage:
Intercultural rhetoric through a learner lens: American students’
perceptions of evidence use in Chinese yìlùnwén writing
Ying Liua, Qian Dub,

Zhejiang University, College of Media and International Culture, 148 Tianmushan Rd, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028, China
Ohio University, ELIP, Department of Linguistics, College of Arts and Sciences, 383 Gordy Hall, 1 University Terrace, Athens, OH 45701, USA
Intercultural rhetoric (IR)
Chinese yìlùnwén (argumentative) writing
Learners’ perceptions
To add to the currently limited intercultural rhetoric (IR) research that incorporates learner
perspectives, this study examines how a group of American undergraduate students understood
evidence use as they took part in an intensive study abroad program to learn Chinese yìlùnwén
writing. Participants in the study included nine Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) students
from five American universities and the course instructor. A variety of data collection methods
were used, including classroom observations, field notes, document gathering, and text-based
interviews. Findings of our study show that the CFL students’ interpretations of evidence use in
Chinese yìlùnwén writing differed greatly from the guidelines and expectations presented in class
by the Chinese instructor, and that learners’ L1 rhetorical knowledge had a direct impact on their
perceptions of Chinese argument construction. Wrestling with two different sets of rhetorical
preferences, the learners largely resisted in their yìlùnwén compositions to what the instructor
had taught in class about evidence use. This study highlights the importance of an emic perspective and an expanded methodological repertoire in allowing IR research to shift its focus
from text products to text producers in context.
1. Introduction
The growing population of international students studying in English-medium universities has inspired a considerable amount of
research in intercultural rhetoric (IR), which seeks to investigate second language writing from a cultural perspective. From Kaplan’s
(1966) seminal work that contrasts organizational features in writing across cultures to critical contrastive rhetoric research (Kubota
& Lehner, 2004) that adopts postmodern and postcolonial theories, debate on the value of IR research has been ongoing. Proponents
argue that this strand of research stems from pedagogical concerns and highlights writing-related cultural differences that have
practical implications for classroom teaching (Li, 2014), whereas critics emphasize the complexity of intercultural comparisons and
view the traditional text analytical approach as being simplistic, essentialist and inadequate (Kubota & Lehner, 2004; Kubota & Shi,
2005; Shi & Kubota, 2007). Although this debate has generated important theoretical insights about the past contributions and future
directions of IR research, it has not directed sufficient attention towards the design of empirical studies and related methodological
One major weakness of IR as a field of research is that the number of rigorously designed empirical studies is still rather small.
Earlier IR research heavily relies on textual analysis as the main methodology. This method, although indispensable for writing
research, only warrants claims about the similarities and/or differences in terms of surface features in writing, and does not allow

Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: (Y. Liu), (Q. Du).
Received 20 January 2017; Received in revised form 3 January 2018; Accepted 4 January 2018
Available online 10 January 2018
1060-3743/ © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Journal of Second Language Writing 40 (2018) 1–11
Y. Liu, Q. Du
researchers to establish direct links between what they observe in the concrete text product and the abstract concept of culture.
Oftentimes, the IR researchers have to make informed guesses based on their own understanding and interpretation of culture when
deciding whether and/or how a particular feature in writing is connected to culture. Conclusions drawn from such analysis, not
surprisingly, are often considered far-fetched, as they may only reflect the individual researcher’s view on the relationship between
writing and culture.
In response to such critiques, recent IR researchers have advocated a more nuanced approach to the investigation of culture and
started to experiment with new methodological possibilities (Connor, 1996, 2011; Connor, Nagelhout, & Rozycki, 2008). Li (1996),
for example, utilized an ethnographic design in her study of how good writing is defined in Chinese and English. Uysal (2008) also
advocates the use of qualitative methods to investigate the complex processes that students engage in L2 writing. In the study, Uysal
(2008) incorporated stimulated recall interviews to examine the reasons for students’ rhetorical choices when writing in their L1 and
L2. In addition, a recent study by Abasi (2012) applied a qualitative research design to explore the perceptions of American learners
of Persian as they summarized two editorials, one from an Iranian newspaper and the other translated into Persian from an American
newspaper. The use of these new research methods expands the potential of IR in revealing the dynamic and complex relationship
between writing and culture.
In order to sustain IR as a valuable strand of research, it is also important to investigate and understand “both product and
process-and especially how they work in relation to each other” (Atkinson, 2004, p. 283). To achieve this goal, the methodological
repertoire of IR research needs to be expanded, and the focus of inquiry needs to shift from the final text product to participants
involved in the process of producing the product. IR studies so far have mostly reflected researchers’ views on the similarities and/or
differences between rhetorical and cultural practices. What is missing are other participants’ voices about their understanding of the
relationship between writing and culture. These include second/foreign language learners, their native or non-native speaking instructors, textbook and material developers, etc. Their views about writing and culture may not always be consistent with those of
expert researchers. Therefore, only by including these participants’ voices can IR research concretize and substantiate the study of the
abstract notion of culture and its relationship with writing. As Belcher (2014) aptly puts it, IR “will need to turn much more of its
attention to discourse consumers” for it to continue “to be of both pedagogical and conceptual value” (p. 65).
To add to the currently limited IR research that focuses on text producers, we report our classroom-based qualitative study that
examined how a group of Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) learners wrestled with different sets of rhetorical and cultural
preferences in their learning of Chinese yìlùnwén writing. The Chinese genre of yìlùnwén resembles, to some extent, the genre of
argumentative writing, but in this article we decide to use the Chinese term yìlùnwén directly (instead of argumentative writing) in
order to highlight the different rhetorical and cultural expectations between Chinese yìlùnwén and English argumentative writing (we
will explain this in detail in the next section). We chose to focus on yìlùnwén because it is a culturally sensitive genre. What constitutes
a convincing argument and how to effectively present an argument vary across cultures. Therefore, examining how American students understood and approached Chinese yìlùnwén writing allowed us to see how learners wrestled with two sets of potentially
conflicting rhetorical and cultural preferences. We hope that our research, following the dynamic model of writing proposed by
Matsuda (1997), can contribute to a new direction of empirical IR research that foregrounds learner voices and writer-reader encounters in context (Matsuda, 1997). In order to capture the dynamism and complexity of such encounters, we utilized a classroombased qualitative research design, and collected multiple sources of data through classroom observations, interviews with the instructor and students, as well as students’ submitted compositions and instructional materials. These data helped us to gain a
comprehensive understanding of the writing context and how the CFL learners negotiate with the writing tasks in this context.
As teacher-researchers, we consider IR as one important field that sheds valuable light on second/foreign language writing
pedagogy, as Li (2014) has argued. We acknowledge that traditional IR research may have contributed to a simplistic and dichotomous view of culture that neglects contexts and learner agency, but as Matsuda (1997) points out, “[p]edagogical implications of
contrastive rhetoric studies should not be dismissed because of the problems with the early attempts to apply the findings of contrastive rhetoric research” (p. 58). As researchers, we are keenly aware that any interpretation of culture may be at best an ambitious
attempt to oversimplify and the associated pedagogical implications thus warrant critical scrutiny. As classroom teachers, however,
we are, among many others, persistently looking for “best practices” that would effectively help learners to see and understand the
varied rhetorical expectations across different cultures. What we need, therefore, is a dynamic and nuanced approach to the study of
writing and culture in context, an approach that would allow us to tackle both theoretical and practical concerns. As Atkinson (2004)
explains, the challenging nature of IR research encompasses three complex areas: writing, second language learning, and culture. Our
goal as teacher-researchers is to unveil how the three areas unfold in the classroom setting and highlight the potential of IR as a tool
to elicit student voices and promote meaningful discussion on writing and culture. To this end, our research examined a group of CFL
writers’ perceptions about what constituted convincing evidence in Chinese yìlùnwén writing.
In this article, we …
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