SOLUTION: University of Miami High Blood Pressure Questions Discussion

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Week 6 Discussion – JAMES ONYANGO

Respond by Day 5 to two colleagues in the following way: Explain what other incentives you might think of to make the nudge more effective and why you might use them. $5 PostScenario 2: Nudging 1.Overview: Regulations aim to modify how
individuals or entities respond to situations. Meleyal (2017) described
regulations as the legal framework imposed by the government and the
rules that prescribe professional conduct. The author noted that
regulations create duties upon entities and give them responsibilities
(p. 934). Similarly, nudging, as an experimental process, enable
policymakers to test possible outcomes of policy provisions. The nudge
theory draws primarily on behavioral economics to explain why people
behave the way they do and suggests ways that the environment of choice
can be structured to lead people to make different choices (Meleyal,
2017; Macaulay, 2018). As such, nudges are methods to achieve rule
adherence through a process of influencing decision making. Besides, the
Nudge theorists suggest that, in order to influence others, one must
present options that make it easy for those we seek to influence to
conform. Anticipated actions or outcomes must promise or demonstrate a
positive outcome in the event of adherence. Taxation The attitude of taxpayers towards
taxation impacts compliance. For instance, Vehovar, Kavkler, &
Huptman (2018) noted that fairness should be critical in understanding
tax evasion or compliance. The authors further pointed out that the
perception of justice as a factor influencing taxpayers’ behaviors is
essential. Taxation is a significant source of revenue for governments
to finance the production of public goods. Consequently, countries seek
ways of encouraging taxpayers to honor their obligation to remit their
taxes. Through nudging, public officials can test policy options that
encourage different segments of taxpayers to file their taxes. For
instance, self-employed taxpayers, among other considerations, seek to
understand the benefits of tax compliance, the complexity of tax
remittance processes, and the negative impact of non-compliance on their
businesses in determining whether to comply or default. Policymakers can introduce
incentivized processes to facilitate compliance. For the self-employed
taxpayers, a complex, tedious tax remittances process impedes
compliance. Additionally, by introducing tax structures proportionate to
the cost of improving processes of doing business would be ways
policymakers can employ the nudging approach to evaluate possible
outcomes. For example, by automating tax returns to facilitate the
process, self-employed taxpayers are enabled to comply, especially when
returns can take place in the comfort of their homes or business
premises. Such a system encourages compliance as it takes away the added
layer or hidden cost of having to go to a government office and wait in
long queues to file returns. Through a deeper understanding of
behavioral constructs, policymakers can design policies that respond to
society’s social and moral norms to address critical problems (Mills,
2013, p. 29). Muriithi & Moyi (2003) noted that
the Kenyan tax regime went under significant reforms from 1986. The tax
reform sought to improve efficiency, productivity, collection,
administration, and lower rates while gaining effectiveness through
elasticity (p.6). One of the reforms included restriction of exemption,
including the reduction in the range of exempt goods to attract
additional revenue. The administrative capacity had to be strengthened,
including a rapid release system, computerizing selected functions,
strengthening cargo control, among others (p. 7). The above example,
among other areas of tax reform in Kenya, presented various elements
where a nudge can assist in accomplishing or determining the extent to
which a policy option led to the desired outcomes or not. Additionally, restrictions such as
the list of items exempted either compel the taxpayer to forgo the item
or to pay for the benefits altogether. A combination of the nudge style
mechanisms and coercive approaches optimizes the outcomes. Nonetheless, a
public administrator must establish what elements best respond to
either of the mechanisms when assessing public policy areas such as
taxation. Reference Macaulay, M. (2018). Public Policy: And the “Nudge.” Public Sector, 41(3), 19–20. Meleyal, L. (2017). Nudging social workers towards interpretive
vigilance: approaches supporting management of conduct in the workplace.
European Journal of Social Work, 20(6), 935–946. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691457.2017.1320526 Mills, C. (2013). Why Nudges Matter: A Reply to Goodwin. Politics, 33(1), 28–36. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9256.2012.01450.x Muriithi, M. K., & Moyi, E. D. (2003, May 1). Tax Reforms and
Revenue Mobilization in Kenya. Retrieved July 3, 2019, from Africa
Portal website:
https://www.africaportal.org/publications/tax-refo… Vehovar, A., Kavkler, A., & Huptman, L. (2018). The Impact of
Individualism and Uncertainty Avoidance on Interdependence of Tax
Culture and Tax Evasion. Lex Localis – Journal of Local Self-Government, 16(4), 821–840. https://doi.org/10.4335/16.4.821-840(2018)

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