SOLUTION: WRT 1102 BU Improving Marketing Mix Leading Supplier of Cookies Survey Discussion

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Writing 102 Business Research Writing
Developing Survey & Focus Groups for Research
February 27, 2020
Why Do we Use Survey & Focus
Groups in Research?
Developing
Survey &
Focus Groups
for Research
• To gain insight into consumer behavior
• To assess consumer attitudes toward a company, it’s
brands, and its products & services
• To help develop new products & services to bring to
market
• To fix problems inherent with existing products &
services in the marketplace
• To measure the effectiveness of marketing
communications
Five Step Process for Conducting Market Research
Classification of Information for Marketing Research
Primary Information
➢Qualitative Information
Developing
Survey &
Focus Groups
for Research
• Focus Group – Very Accurate, Most
Expensive
➢Quantitative Information
• Surveys, Census – Easier to administer,
less costly, may not give exact
information needed
Developing Survey & Focus Groups for Research
Consumer Decision Process: Shopping Goods
Problem Recognition
Identify Potential or Existing Need
Post Purchase Behavior
• Cognitive Dissonance
• Product / Brand
Advertising
Develop Selection Criteria
Based on Pricing,
Product Appeal or Status
Information Search
• Talk to family &
Friends
• Search the internet
• Product / Brand
Advertising
Select Ancillary Services
• Service Contracts
• Maintenance Plans
• Warranties
Alternative Evaluation
• Visit Dealer Showrooms
• Compare quotes
Ownership Commitment
• Secure Financing
• Obtain Possession
Product Selection
Developing Survey & Focus Groups for Research
Consumer Assessment Tools at Each Stage of Decision Process
Problem Recognition – Focus Group
Identify Potential or Existing Need
Develop Selection Criteria
Focus Groups
Based on Pricing,
Product Appeal or Status
Focus Groups Post Purchase Behavior
• Cognitive Dissonance
• Product / Brand Advertising
Information Search Surveys
• Talk to family & Friends
• Search the internet
• Product / Brand
Advertising
Surveys Select Ancillary Services
• Service Contracts
• Maintenance Plans
• Warranties
Alternative Evaluation Surveys
• Visit Dealer Showrooms
• Compare quotes
Surveys Ownership Commitment
• Secure Financing
• Obtain Possession
Product Selection
Creating Survey Assessments – Types of Survey Questions
Demographic
Information Questions
Likert Scale Questions
Media Behavior
Questions
Usage Behavior
Questions
Creating Survey Assessments – Types of Survey Questions
Open-Ended Questions
Dichotomous Questions
Multiple Choice Questions
Attitudinal Questions
Semantic Differential Scale
Questions
Types of Questions to Avoid in Survey Development
Leading Questions
• Why do you like McDonald’s fries compared to competitors?
✓ This question assumes that the respondent likes McDonald’s fries already.
Ambiguous Questions
• Do you eat at this restaurant regularly?
✓ How do you define regularly? The question can’t be accurately answered.
Unanswerable Questions
• When did you first start using this product?
✓ Respondent might not be able to remember.
Two Questions in One
Do you use a shampoo and conditioner?
Yes _____ No ______
✓ What if the respondent uses a shampoo but not a conditioner?
Non Mutually Exclusive Answers
✓ What is your age?
Under 20 _____
✓ How does someone age 40 respond?
20 – 40 _______
40 and over ________
What is a Focus Group?
➢A Focus Group is a small group of six to ten
people led through an open discussion by a
skilled moderator.
➢The group needs to be large enough to generate
rich discussion but not so large that some
participants are left out.
➢Ideally, participant comments will stimulate and
influence the thinking and sharing of others.
What is a Focus Group?
➢ The focus group moderator nurtures disclosure in an open
and spontaneous. format. The moderator’s goal is to generate
a maximum number of different ideas and opinions from as
many different people in the time allotted.
➢ The ideal amount of time to set aside for a focus group is
anywhere from 45 to 90 minutes. Beyond that most groups are
not productive and it becomes an imposition on participant
time.
➢ Focus Groups are structured around a set of carefully
predetermined questions – usually no more than 10 – but the
discussion is free-flowing.
What is a Focus Group?
➢Some people even find themselves changing
their thoughts and opinions during the group.
➢A homogeneous group of strangers comprise
the focus group. Homogeneity levels the playing
field and reduces inhibitions among people who
will probably never see each other again.
➢It takes more than one focus group on any one
topic to produce valid results – usually three or
four.
➢You’ll know you’ve conducted enough groups
(with the same set of questions) when you’re
not hearing anything new anymore, i.e. you’ve
reached a point of saturation.
A Focus Group is not:
✓A Debate
What is a
Focus Group?
✓Group Therapy
✓A Conflict Resolution Session
✓A Problem Solving Session
✓An Opportunity to Collaborate
✓A Promotional Opportunity
✓An Educational Sessions
➢Twelve is the maximum number of questions for
any one group. Ten is better, and eight is ideal.
➢Focus group participants won’t have a chance to
see the questions they are being asked. So, to
make sure they understand and can fully respond
to the questions posed, questions should be: ƒ
Designing Focus
Group
Questions
✓Short and to the point
✓One-Dimension Each
✓Unambiguously Worded
✓Open-ended or sentence completion types
✓Non-threatening or embarrassing
✓Worded in a way that they cannot be
answered with a simple “yes” or “no” answer
(use “why” and “how” instead)
Designing Focus Group Questions
There are three types of focus group
questions:
1. Engagement questions: introduce participants to
and make them comfortable with the topic of
discussion
2. Exploration questions: get to the meat of the
discussion
3. Exit question: check to see if anything was
missed in the discussion
Designing Focus Group Questions
An Example: Questions for a Focus Group on Dental Flossing
Engagement questions:
1. What is your favorite toothpaste?
2. What do you notice when you look at other people’s teeth?
Exploration questions:
3. Who in particular has influenced your dental habits?
4. What are the pros and cons of flossing your teeth?
5. When you floss, how do follow through? When you don’t, why not?
6. How do you feel when told about possible damage caused by not flossing?
7. How do you feel about yourself when you floss regularly? When you don’t?
Exit question:
8. Is there anything else you would like to say about why you do or do not floss
your teeth on a regular basis?
• In an ideal focus group, all the participants
are very comfortable with each other but
none of them know each other.
Recruiting and
Preparing for
a Focus Group
• Homogeneity is key to maximizing
disclosure among focus group participants.
• Participant inclusion/exclusion criteria
should be established upfront and based
on the purpose of the study.
✓Use the criteria as a basis to screen all
potential applicants.
✓Surveys can help with using criteria in
the participant selection process.
Focus groups participants can be recruited in any one of a
number of ways. Some of the most popular include:
Recruiting and
Preparing for a
Focus Group
Nomination – Key individuals nominate people they think
would make good participants. Nominees are familiar with
the topic, known for their ability to respectfully share their
opinions, and willing to volunteer their time.
Random Selection – If participants will come from a large
but defined group with many eager participants, names can
be randomly drawn from a hat until the desired number of
verified participants is achieved.
All members of the same group – Sometimes an already
existing group serves as an ideal pool from which to invite
participants (e.g. Kiwanis Club, PTO)
Same role/job title – Depending on the topic, the pool
might be defined by position, title or
Volunteers – When selection criteria is broad, participants
can be recruited with flyers and newspaper ads.
• Once a group of viable recruits has been established, call
each one to confirm interest and availability.
✓ Give them times and locations of the focus groups
and secure verbal confirmation.
✓ Tell them you will mail (or email) them a written
confirmation and call to remind them two days
before the scheduled group.
Recruiting and Preparing
for a Focus Group
• Over-invite in anticipation of a no-show rate of 10 to 20
percent. But you will never want a group of more than 10
participants.
• Offer an incentive. A monetary incentive of $ 150 per
participant is probably the minimum you should consider.
• Other incentive ideas include: coupons, gift certificates,
or an opportunity to win a big-ticket item at a drawing
conducted at the focus group.
• Tell participants that the focus group will take about one
and half to two hours.
✓ Give them a starting time that is 15 minutes prior to
the actual start of the focus group to allow for filling
out necessary paperwork, having a bite to eat, and
settling in to the group.
Recruiting and Preparing
for a Focus Group
• Arrange for a comfortable room in a convenient location
with ample parking.
✓ Depending on your group, you may also what to
consider proximity to public transportation
✓ The room should have a door for privacy and table
and chairs to seat a circle of up to 12 people (10
participants and the moderator and assistant
moderator). Many public agencies (churches,
libraries) have free rooms available.
• Arrange for food. At a minimum, offer a beverage and
light snack (cookies, cheese/crackers, veggie tray, etc.).
✓ It is OK to offer a full meal but be sure to add an
additional 30 to 45 minutes to the entire process so
that everyone can finish eating before the group
begins.
• The focus group moderator nurtures disclosure in
an open and spontaneous format. The moderator’s
goal is to generate a maximum number of different
ideas and opinions from as many different people
in the time allotted.
Focus Group Moderator
and Assistant Moderator
Responsibilities
• Focus group participants won’t have a chance to
see the questions they are being asked. So, to
make sure they understand and can fully respond
to the questions posed, questions should be:
✓ Short and to the point
✓ One-Dimension Each
✓ Unambiguously Worded
✓ Open-ended or sentence completion types
✓ Non-threatening or embarrassing
✓ Worded in a way that they cannot be
answered with a simple “yes” or “no” answer
(use “why” and “how” instead)
Focus Group Moderator
and Assistant Moderator
Responsibilities
Moderator Responsibilities
• Because the moderator holds a position of
authority and perceived influence, s/he must
remain neutral, refraining from nodding/raising
eyebrows, agreeing/disagreeing, or
praising/denigrating any comment made.
• It is good moderator practice to paraphrase and
summarize long, complex or ambiguous
comments. It demonstrates active listening and
clarifies the comment for everyone in the group.
Assistant Moderator Responsibilities
• Also helps make respondents comfortable
• Listen attentatively and take notes appropriately
regarding what is discussed.
• Observe verbal and non-verbal clues about
responses and note them

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